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A Critical History of Philosophy.

VOLUME I.

By Asa Mahan

1883.

PHILOSOPHY IN AMERICA
AN ALETHEA IN HEART PUBLICATION

IN THE SERIES OF
THE WORKS OF ASA MAHAN.
VOLUME III.

Vol. I. The System of Mental Philosophy.
Vol. II. The Science of Intellectual Philosophy.
Vol. III. A Critical History of Philosophy.
Vol. IV. The Science of Natural Philosophy.
Vol. V. The Doctrine of the Will.
Vol. VI. Science of Moral Philosophy.
Vol. VII. The Science of Logic.
________

Vol. VIII. Autobiography: Intellectual, Moral, and Spiritual.
Vol. IX. Out of Darkness Into Light.
Vol. X. Baptism of the Holy Spirit.
Vol. XI. Misunderstood Texts.
Vol. XII. Christian Perfection.
Vol. XIII. Lectures on the 9th of Romans.
Vol. XIV. The True Believer.
Vol. XV. Life Thoughts on the Rest of Faith.
Vol. XVI. The Phenomena of Spiritism.
Vol. XVII. Modern Mysteries Examined and Exposed.
Vol. XVIII. A Critical History of the Late American War.

Other volumes can be found on the CD

GRAND RAPIDS:
REPUBLISHED BY THE EDITOR.
RICHARD FRIEDRICH OF ALETHEA IN HEART MINISTRIES,
1350 PARKWAY DR. NE 303
GRAND RAPIDS, MI 49525 USA.

http://truthinheart.com

___

First Alethea In Heart edition published in 2002.
Reproduced from the edition of 1883, New York, without altering anything but format and page numbers.

Copyright © 2002
Richard Max Friedrich
All Rights Reserved

MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

A

CRITICAL HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY.

BY

REV. ASA MAHAN, D.D., LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF
'THE SCIENCE OF INTELLECTUAL PHILOSOPHY' 'THE SYSTEM OF MENTAL PHILOSOPHY,' 'THE SCIENCE OF LOGIC,' 'THE SCIENCE OF NATURAL THEOLOGY,' ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I. & II.

' How charming is divine Philosophy;
Not harsh and crabbed, as dull fools suppose,
But musical as is Apollo's lute,
And a perpetual feast of nectar'd sweets,
Where no crude surfeit reigns.'

NEW YORK:
PHILLIPS & HUNT.
CINCINNATI:
WALDEN & STOWE.

1883.

FOREWORD BY THE EDITOR AND PUBLISHER.

PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.

CONTENTS.

o


GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

PAGE

SECTION I.

THE DESIGN AND PLAN OF THE WORK 41

What we propose to accomplish, and by what Method 42

SECTION II.

PHILOSOPHY—IT'S NATURE AND TRUE AND PROPER SPHERE IN THE EMPIRE OF

WORLD THOUGHT 43

What does Philosophy imply? 45
Relations of these two Forms of Knowledge to each other 45
Criteria of True and False Systems of Science 47
Principles and Facts of True Science, as distinguished from Assumptions,
Opinions, Conjectures, etc. 47

Principles as distinguished from mere Assumptions

Opinions, Beliefs, Conjectures, etc., as distinguished from Facts of Real 49
Knowledge

Intuitions and Forms of Belief which take rise from Intuitions 50

Condition of Real Knowledge 50
The Question, What can we Know?—how Answered 51
Conditions, Extent, and Limits of Valid Knowledge as Affirmed in all Systems
of Materialism and Idealism 51
Remarks on these Hypotheses 52

SECTION III.

FOUR, AND BUT FOUR REALITIES, VIZ., SPIRIT MATTER TIME, AND SPACE, ARE

REPRESENTED, OR ARE REPRESENTABLE, IN HUMAN THOUGHT 54
Nature, Character, and Mutual Relations of these Four Realities 55
All these Realities are distinctly represented in Human Thought 55
No other Reality is or can be represented in Human Thought 56
These Realities wholly unlike each other 57
These Realities differ equally relatively to our Manner of Perceiving and

Apprehending them 57
These Realities sustain to each other fixed and definable Relations 58
These Apprehensions not Self-contradictory 60
Necessary Deductions from the Principles and Facts just evinced as True 63

These Four Realities are apprehended by Universal Mind as actually Known

Realities, nor can our Apprehensions of any one of them be changed, modified,

or displaced from Human Thought 64

PAGE

Our Apprehensions of these Realities have all the Fundamental Characteristics
of Forms of Valid Knowledge, Characteristics which True Science must and

will Acknowledge 68
I. The Validity of these Apprehensions cannot be Disproved, or rendered

Doubtful 68
1. Such Forms of Knowledge not Naturally Impossible 69
2. Facts in Disproof cannot be found outside of the Sphere of these

Apprehensions 70
3. Facts in Disproof cannot be found in the Relations of these Apprehensions
to one another 70
4. Such Facts cannot be found in what is Intrinsic in any of these

Apprehensions 70
II. Our Apprehensions of Space, Time, Matter, and Spirit are, in all their
essential elements and characteristics, distinct, separate, and dissimilar
from all Assumptions, Beliefs, and Opinions, which may or may not be true 73
III. These Apprehensions have all Possible Positive Characteristics of Real
Absolute Knowledge 75
Necessary Ideas 75
Contingent Ideas—Matter and Spirit 76

SECTION IV.

ORIGIN, GENESIS, AND CHARACTER OF ALL ACTUAL AND CONCEIVABLE SYSTEMS OF

PHILOSOPHY 81
The Diverse Systems Defined 81
Materialism 82
Necessary Problems which this Hypothesis involves 83
Idealism—Doctrine Explained 86
The Theory of External Perception 86
Problems common to Idealism in all its Forms 88
Ideal Dualism 89
Problems specially pertaining to Ideal Dualism 89
Idealism Proper 90
Subjective Idealism 91
Problems of Subjective Idealism 91
Pantheism Proper 92
Special Assumptions of Pantheism and Pure Idealism 93
Necessary Problems of Pantheism 96
Pure Idealism 97
General and Particular Problems of Pure Idealism 97
Relations to each other of the Hypotheses of Materialism and Idealism 99
Scepticism—The Doctrine Defined 102
Doctrine common to this and other Systems 103
The Grand Problem of this System 103

PAGE

The Condition on which this Problem can be Solved 104
The Sceptical Assumption Refuted 105

Realism—The System Defined 106
The General Problem of this System 106
Particular Special Problems of the System 107
Realism Verified 108
Postulates common to all Systems 108
Criteria of Forms of Valid Knowledge as already Stated 109
'Our Knowledge of Space and Time Verified 109
Our Apprehensions of Matter and Spirit Verified 110

SECTION V.

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Materialism, Idealism, and Scepticism all constructed throughout after one and
the same Method—Begging the Question 111
The proper place and influence of the different Mental Faculties in the

Constitution of Systems of Knowledge 115
Secret of the Power of Scepticism 119
The Secret of the Power of Systematized Thought, and the only Proper Method
of Examining such Systems 122
The True Philosopher and Pedant distinguished 123
When should the Deductions and Opinions of Philosophers have Weight with us? 125
Prudential Considerations 126
Plan of our Future Inquiries 127

___________


PART I.

THE ORIENTAL PHILOSOPHY.


CHAPTER I.

THE HINDU PHILOSOPHY.


Sources of this Philosophy 128

SECTION I.

EXPOSITION OF THE GENERAL DOCTRINE OF THE VEDAS 128
General Reflections on the Hindu Doctrine 130
Philosophers and Religionists of India 133

SECTION II.

THE MIMANSA AND VEDANTA SYSTEMS 135

The Vedanta System 135
Specific Expositions of the Vedanta System 138
Ancient and Modern Pantheism 141

PAGE

The Fixed Method of Pantheism as seen in the Light of the Immutable

Principles of True Science 146

Conditions on which the Race can enjoy the Benefits of 'the Revelation of
Absolute Science' 147

SECTION III.

THE SEMI-ORTHODOX SYSTEMS 148
The Sankhya of Kapila 148
The Sankhya and Vedanta Systems compared 151
Hindu and Modern Dualism 152

SECTION IV.
THE YOGA SHASTRA OF PATANDJALI 154


SECTION V.

THE VAIESCHIKA SYSTEM OF KANADA 156


SECTION VI.

THE HINDU LOGIC 157


SECTION VII.

THE HETERODOX SYSTEMS.

The Djainas and Buddhists 160
I. The System of the Djainas 161
II. The Buddhists 161
Buddhist Systems of Philosophy 164
Pore Idealism 165
Subjective Idealism 165
The Buddhist Material Systems 166
Relations of the Buddhist and Hindu Systems to each other 166


SECTION VIII.

GENERAL REMARKS UPON THE INDIAN PHILOSOPHY 167


SECTION IX.

THE CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 169


SECTION X.

THE PERSIAN SYSTEM 170
Zoroaster as a Teacher of Morals and Philosophy 170
The Cosmology of the 'Boundehesch' 171

SECTION XL

THE EGYPTIAN SYSTEM 173

SECTION XII.

GENERAL REMARKS UPON THE ORIENTAL SYSTEM 175
1. The Connection of these Systems with Religion 175
Relation of Oriental Religions to the Primitive Religion of the Race 176
Monotheism the Original Faith of the Race 177

PAGE

2. Relations of these Systems to the Doctrine of the Soul as Distinct from all

Material Existences, and as Immortal 180

3. The Relations of these Systems to the Doctrine of Right and Wrong, of Moral

Obligation, Moral Desert, and Retribution 181
4. Relations of these Systems to the Doctrine of Human Sinfulness 181
5. The Idea of Salvation from Sin the common Element of all these Religious
Systems 182
6. The Idea of Human Existence and Salvation, as it Appears in the Light of all

these Systems 183
7. What has the Race Reason to Expect from the Anti-Theistic Philosophies
which are being Commended to Human Regard? 184


PART II.
THE GRECIAN PHILOSOPHY.


INTRODUCTION.

SECTION I.

THE RELATIONS OF THE GREEKS TO THE ORIENTAL NATIONS 188

Correspondences and Differences between the Grecian and the Oriental Systems 189


SECTION II.

THE RELIGION OF THE GREEKS 190
Grecian Polytheism 190
The Monotheism of Greece 191

SECTION III.

NATURE CHARACTER, AND MUTUAL RELATIONS OF KNOWLEDGE À PRIORI AND

À POSTERIORI. THESE FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE DISTINGUISHED AND DEFINED 196
Relations between Knowledge
à priori and à posteriori 198
Necessary Deductions from the Preceding Analysis 200
All Questions Pertaining to Ontology belong exclusively to the à posteriori, or
Mixed Sciences 206
By no possibility can the Knowledge affirmed be obtained of any such Substances
or Causes 211

SECTION IV.

MYSTERY AND ABSURDITY DEFINED AND DISTINGUISHED 213
Existence involves a Mystery 215
Bearing of these Conclusions upon our former Deductions 216
The Existence of a Power of Knowledge involves a Mystery equally profound 216


SECTION V.

IN WHAT SENSE AND FORM IS HUMAN KNOWLEDGE RELATIVE AND PHENOMENAL? 219

In Phenomena, Objects are Manifested as they are, and not as they are not 219

PAGE

The Dogma that all our World-Knowledge is mere illusory Appearance 220
The Real Relativity of Knowledge 221

SECTION VI.

Physiology AND METAPHYSICS 224

SECTION VII.

FORMS OF PROGRESSION COMMON TO ANTI-THEISTIC SYSTEMS OF PHILOSOPHY 226

SECTION VIII.

THE SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY IN GREECE 228


CHAPTER I.

THE PRE-SOCRATIC EVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY.


SECTION I.

THE IONIC SCHOOL—THALES OF MILETUS 230
Exposition of the Doctrines of Thales 230
The Cosmological Doctrine and Teachings of Thales 230
The Theistic Doctrine and Teachings of Thales 231
Anaximander and Anaximenes 234
Anaxagoras 235
Mr. Lewes corrected 238
Observations upon the Teachings and Doctrines of the Ionic School 239


SECTION II.

THE ITALIC SCHOOL 241
Pythagoras 241

SECTION III.

THE ELEATYC SCHOOL 244
The Eleatic Metaphysical School 244
Mr. Lewes' Vindication of Zeno's Argument 249
The Method of this School 251
The Physical School of Elea 251
Exposition of the System of these Philosophers 252
General Reflections upon this System 254


SECTION IV.

THE INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL 259
Heraclitus and Empedocles 259

SECTION V.

THE SOPHISTS 261
Common Doctrine of the Sophists 262
The Method of the Sophists 263

PAGE

The Sources of the wide-spread Influence of the Sophists 264
General Reflections suggested by the Preceding Analysis of The Pre-Socratic

Systems of Philosophy 265

CHAPTER II.

THE SOCRATIC EVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY.

INTRODUCTION.

PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY 271
The Object of Philosophy 271
The Immutable Characteristics of all Explicable Facts and Relations 273
The Great Problem of Philosophy 274
The Relations of Psychology to Philosophy 274
Intellectual Faculties, Primary and Secondary 274
Relations of these Faculties to Science 277
Comparative Validity and Authority of these Faculties 278


SECTION I.

SOCRATES 279
Common-Sense 282
The Era of the Public Teaching of Socrates 284
The Method of Socrates 285
Special Doctrines Taught by Socrates 289
The Demon of Socrates 292


SECTION II.

PLATO 293
Plato as Contrasted with Socrates, Aristotle, and Anaxagoras 293
Plato's Method 295
General Characteristics of Plato as a Thinker 297
Doctrines which, as all Authorities admit, Plato did hold and teach 298
The Psychology of Plato 301
Reason and Judgment 303
Sensation, or Sense-Perception 303
General Remarks upon this Psychology 305
Plato's Doctrine of Ideas 311
In what Language and Form Plato has stated his own Doctrine 312
Plato's Real Doctrine of Ideas 314
Consequences which follow from each Exposition which has been given of Plato's

Doctrine of Ideas 316
Consequences resulting from the Exposition which affirms Plato's Ideas to he

'the Eternal Thoughts of the Divine Intellect' 317
Consequences resulting from the Doctrine that Plato's Ideas are Real Separate

Existences 318

PAGE

General Remarks upon Plato as a World-Thinker 319
Plato, when in the Sphere of Socratic Thought, and when Philosophizing 319

Plato, as furnishing another example of the validity of á priori insight and of the

á priori method of Philosophizing 320
The Faculty, or Faculties, actually employed by Plato and other Philosophers
who adopt the
á priori method when Philosophizing 323
Plato as a Logician 324
The Doctrine of Innate Ideas 325
The Idea of Reason as a Faculty possessed only by Philosophers 327
Three great Central Truths, for the first scientific Enunciation of which the

World is indebted to Plato 328

SECTION III.

ARISTOTLE 331
Aristotle's Classification of the Sciences 331
Questions at Issue between Aristotle and Plato 331
The Doctrine of Individual Existence as Opposed to that of Ideas 332
The Validity of Sensation, or Sense-Perception 333
The Summum Bonum 335
Doctrine of Reminiscence 336
The Universe as an External Existence, and as Organized in Time 337
Aristotle's Logic 337
Fundamental Error of Mill in his Logic 342
Aristotle's Formula pertaining to the Origin, Source, and Consequent Elements,
of all our Knowledge 344
Aristotle's Ethics 346
'The First Philosophy,' or Metaphysics of Aristotle 347
Aristotle's Proof of the Divine Existence 348
Evidence of the Being, Perfections, and Providence of a Personal God, as
deducible from the Platonic, Aristotelian, and the only other conceivable

standpoint 350
Argument in the most general Form 350
The Argument as Deducible from the Platonic Standpoint 352
Argument from the Aristotelian Standpoint 352
The Argument as Deducible from the only remaining Standpoint, no other

Hypothesis being Conceivable 354


SECTION IV.

THE EPICUREANS 357
Perceived and Implied Forms of Knowledge 357
Test of Valid Knowledge 358
The General Psychology of Epicurus 360
Epicurean Doctrine of Creation 361

PAGE

SECTION V.

THE STOICS 365
Criteria of Truth according to the Stoics 365
The Physics of the Stoics 366

Some of the Special Doctrines of the Stoics 368
The Ethics of the Stoics 368


CHAPTER III.

THE DECLINE OF THE GRECIAN PHILOSOPHY.

INTRODUCTION.


SECTION I.

CAUSES OF THIS DECLINE 370
Incidental Causes of the Decline of the Grecian Philosophy 372


SECTION II.

THE SCEPTICAL PHILOSOPHY. 375
The Issue as Stated by Mr. Lewes 375
What Criterion is there of the Truth of our Knowledge? 375
Erroneous Statements and Expositions of Mr. Lewes 376
Criteria of Valid Knowledge 379
Necessary Deductions from a Rigid Application of these Criteria 381
The Sceptical Doctrine Self-contradictory 384
The Sceptical Distinction between Phenomena and Noumena 385
Observations upon the Sceptical Doctrine on these Subjects 386
Positive Sides of the Sceptical Philosophy 388
Necessary Deductions from Fundamental Principles of this System 389

DECLINE OF THE GRECIAN PHILOSOPHY.

SECTION I.

THE PYRRHONISTS 393
The Peculiar Form of the Pyrrhonic Scepticism 396
The Consummation sought by the Pyrrhonists through their Philosophy 397

SECTION II.

THE OLD, MIDDLE, AND NEW ACADEMY 399
The Probable Substituted for the Absolute 400


SECTION III.

CONTINUATION OF THE ARISTOTELIAN SCHOOLS 403


SECTION IV.

NEO-PLATONISM 404
General Reflections on the Grecian Evolution in Philosophy 409

PAGE

Verification of our Statement in Regard to the Number and Character of all
Possible and Actual Systems of Philosophy 409
The Systems present or wanting in the Grecian, and common or peculiar to
Oriental and Modern Schools 410
In what Sense and Form was Grecian Philosophy Introductory to Christianity? 413

PART III.

BOOK II.

THE CHRISTIAN EVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY.


SECTION I.

DOCTRINE, OR HYPOTHESIS, OF ULTIMATE CAUSATION 416
The Doctrine of Providence 418
Relations of the above Doctrines to Science 419


SECTION II.

ONTOLOGY OF THE BIBLE 421
Relations of Science to the Doctrines of Scriptural Ontology 423


SECTION III.

THE MORALITY OF THE SCRIPTURES 426

SECTION IV.

SPECIAL AND PECULIAR DOCTRINES OF CHRISTIANITY 428
The Tri-Unity of the Godhead 428
Revealed Relations of these Tri-Personalities to one Another 430
Considerations which Commend this Doctrine to our Reason and Judgment 432
The Doctrine of Incarnation and Atonement 433
Relations of the Doctrine of Incarnation to Reason and Science 434

ATONEMENT.

Relation of this Doctrine to Reason and Science 435
Relations of God to Believers as a Hearer of Prayer 436
Relations of this Doctrine to the Teachings of Science 437


BOOK II.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE EARLY CHRISTIAN ERA.

SECTION I.

RELATIONS BETWEEN THEISM PROPER AND CHRISTIAN THEISM 440

Christian Theism renders infinitely more distinct and impressive the Real Verities

apprehended through Natural Theism 441
Christian Theism extends our Vision of Troth beyond the possible reach of

Natural Theism 443

PAGE

Christian Theism confirms and reaffirms the Validity of the Doctrine of God as

taught by Natural Theology 444


SECTION II.

THE RELATIONS OF CHRISTIAN THEISM TO THE SCIENCE OF COSMOLOGY 445

The Question of the Reality of these Facts, to be determined, first of all, wholly

irrespective of their bearing upon the Claims of the Christian Religion 446

SECTION III.

RELATIONS OF SUPERNATURAL EVENTS, AND THE ACTIONS OF A SUPERNATURAL POWER

OF NATURE, TO THE SO-CALLED LAWS OF NATURE 447


SECTION IV.

SUPERNATURAL OR MIRACULOUS EVENTS DEFINED—THEIR POSSIBILITY AND PROBABILITY

—THEIR BEARING UPON THE CLAIMS OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION 448
Such Events Defined 448
Conditions of the Possibility or Probability of the Occurrence of Supernatural

Events 449
The Knowledge which all who affirm the Impossibility, Improbability, or

Non-actuality of Supernatural Events do, in reality, assume the possession of 449
Conditions on which we are Absolutely Bound to admit the Actual Occurrence
of Supernatural Events 451
Conditions on which we may Properly withhold Assent to the Actuality of
Supernatural Events affirmed to have occurred 452
Relations of these Events to the Christian Religion 453
Relations of these Events to the Christian Scriptures 454


SECTION V.

REVELATION AND INSPIRATION. 456
Terms Defined 465

SECTION VI.

NEEDFUL EXPLANATIONS 461
Special Explanations 461


SECTION VII.

OBJECTIONS ANSWERED 465


SECTION VIII.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH 473

An Example of the Philosophic Teachings of the Leading Doctors of the

Primitive Church 374


SECTION IX.

ANTI-CHRISTIAN SPECULATIONS. 477
Oriental Doctrines. 478
The Graeco-Oriental Philosophy 480

PAGE


SECTION X.

CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE AS CORRUPTED BY 'SCIENCE FALSELY SO-CALLED' 481

CHAPTER III.

THE MEDIAEVAL EVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY.

The Rise of Scholasticism 482
Scholasticism in its Primal Form 483
This Doctrine Verified 484
Scholasticism in its Final Form 487
The Nominalism and Realism of the Middle Ages 489
The Mysticism of the Middle Ages 491
The Teachings of Thomas Aquinas 499
Decline and Fall of Scholasticism 501
The Dogma that Doubt is a Pre-requisite Condition of Knowledge 503
The Real Place of 'Prudential Doubt' in Science 507
Heterodox Teachings and Systems of the Middle Ages 508
Scientific Problems discussed in the Middle Ages 511
Puerility of the Questions agitated by the Schoolmen compared with those

common in other Eras 512
The Main Problems agitated by the Schoolmen not Puerile 514

BOOK V.

THE MODERN EVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY.

INTRODUCTION.

PAGE

The True Idea of Science 519

Necessary Ideas and General Notions or Conceptions distinguished 520 Necessary Judgments Intuitively True, and General Judgments or Propositions 521

Distinguishing Characteristics of Necessary Principles 524

Fundamental Error of Kant in respect to Necessary Intuitive Judgments 525

Relations of General and Synthetical Judgments to Science 530

Facts of Science 531

Immutable Condition on which the Validity of Original Intuition in any

Form can be Invalidated 533

Criteria of Valid Deductions in Science 534

Conditions of Refutation 534

Conditions of Disproof 535

Objections to a Given Proposition or Hypothesis, when Valid 536

Method of Refuting Objections, or the Forms in which they may be Refuted 537

Inconceivability as a Test of Truth 538

The Term 'Inconceivable,' as Employed in Science, Defined 538

The Secondary Meaning of this Term 539

Platonic Ideas 540

The Central Problem which now lies out for Solution within the Sphere of

Scientific Thought 541

Fundamental Defects in the Anglo-Saxon and German 542

Methods of Developing Systems of Science 542

Anglo-Saxon Thinking 548

German Thinkers

CHAPTER I.

BACON TO REID.

SECTION I.

Bacon 550

Origin of Scientific Principles 552

Origin of False Systems of Philosophy 552

What did Bacon really do for Science? 554

End and Aim of Induction according to Bacon 555

Fundamental False Principle announced by Bacon 555

The Doctrine of Method as Understood by Bacon 556

General Remarks upon this Doctrine 557

Principles of Science, how Originated 560

Common Sense defined, together with its Relations to Science 561

Common Error in regard to Investigation and Discovery of Truth, and

Reasoning and Proof 561

PAGE

SECTION II.

Hobbes and Gassendi 562

Theory of Hobbes 563

The Moral and Political System of Hobbes Theory of Gassendi 564

Remarks upon these Systems 565

SECTION III.

John Locke 568

The Special Peculiarities of the System of Locke 569

General Remarks upon this Theory 570

Systems possibly deducible from the Principles of Locke 578

Different Hypotheses in Respect to the origin of Necessary Ideas and of

Self-evident, Universal, and Necessary Judgments in the Mind 580

Hypothesis of Hume, Mill, and others of their School 580

Hypothesis of Kant, and of the Transcendental School 581

The Realistic Hypothesis 584

Philosophical Systems deduced from the Theory of Locke 584

Systems of Materialism deduced from the Theory of Locke 585

Materialism in England 585

Materialism in France 587

Condillac 587

The Sensational Hypothesis as stated by Diderot 587

Helvrtius, D'Holbach, and La Mettrie 589

That which peculiarizes Modern Materialism 591

The Doctrine of Idealism, as Developed from the Principles of L Berkeley 593

Metaphysical Phantom of Professor Ferrier 596

The Attempt to identify the Doctrine of Idealism with 'the Ordinary Belief

of Mankind' 597

The Sceptical Deductions from the Principles of Locke. 598

David Hume 598

The Basis-Principle of the Sceptical Philosophy 601

The Dilemma in which the Sceptical Philosophy is Involved 603

Hume's Avenue of Escape from the Dilemma under Consideration 603

Hume's and the Sceptical Contradictions 603

Lewes's Criticism of Reid's Criticism of Hume 604

Reaction in the Direction of Realism or Common-Sense. Reid, Beattie,

Dugald-Stewart, Jouffroy 606

The Doctrine of Realism, or Common-Sense, Defined and Elucidated 607

Realistic Principle and Postulate 608

Representative and Presentative Forms of Knowledge 608

The Realistic Deduction 609

The Claims of Realism, as Contrasted with those of Idealism, Materialism,

and Scepticism 610

PAGE

Realism accords, in all its Teachings, with the Absolute Testimony of every

Individual Consciousness, and the Intuitive Convictions of the Race 610

The Doctrines of Realism can by no Possibility be Disproved 610

This Doctrine Verified by the Highest Conceivable Forms of Proof 611

Why are the Claims of Realism Impeached? 612

CHAPTER II.

THE GERMAN EVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY.

I. Descartes 614

The Method of Descartes 615

This Principle renders Certitude, in any form, of Impossible Attainment 616

This Principle of no Logical Consequence 617

The Deduction from the Principle invalid 617

The Use which Descartes makes of the Principle, Cogito, ergo sum, as a

Universal Criterion of Truth 618

Benedict Spinoza 620

Moral Teachings of Spinoza 620

Spinoza's Doctrine of Being 621

Leibnitz 622

His System Stated 622

The Influence of Leibnitz in the Sphere of World-Thought 625

CHAPTER III.

KANT TO HEGEL.—SYSTEMS OF IDEALISM PERFECTED THROUGH GERMAN THOUGHT.

SECTION I.

General Statements Pertaining to these Systems 626

Points of Agreement and Disagreement between the Expounders of the

System in its Various Forms 627

Promises and Professions with which these Forms of Idealism were Introduced

to the World 629

What we Propose to Prove in Regard to all these Systems 630

SECTION II.

Ideal Dualism.—Immanuel Kant 630

Postulate common to all these Systems 630

General Remarks upon the Two Systems, Realism and Idealism 632

The Real Object of Perception according to Kant and Idealism universally 635

The Originating Cause of Sensation, according to Kant and other Idealists 636

The Law of Perception, according to Kant and Idealism universally 637

The Origin of á Priori or Necessary Ideas and Principles, according to Kant

and idealism 639

Hypothesis stated 639 Errors Involved in the above Hypothesis 639

PAGE

Kant's Definition of these Judgments 641

The Fundamental Problem in Philosophy according to Kant 642

Kant's, as Contrasted with the True Solution of this Problem 642

Kant's Solution 643

The True Solution of this Problem 646

An Example of Fundamental Error, together with the Manner in which it and

Similar Errors are Inserted into the Sphere of Science 648

Kant's 'Antinomies of Pure Reason' 649

Conditions on which the Existence of such Antinomies can be Verified 650

These Antinomies of Impossible Validity 651

Special Criticisms of these Antinomies 654

General Remarks upon these Antinomies 662

Conclusion of our Criticism of Kant and of Ideal Dualism 662

SECTION III.

Subjective Idealism.—Johann Gottlieb Fichte 663

Common Doctrine of Idealism in all its Forms, and the Logical Consequences

of that Doctrine 663

Fichte's Basis Principle of all True Science 664

Critical Remarks upon this Principle 665

Fundamental Assumptions which, as Principles, Lie at the Basis of Subjective

Idealism 667

Fichte's Criterion of Absolute Knowledge 668

The Necessary Moral and Religious Deductions of Subjective Idealism 669

SECTION IV.

Pantheism Proper. Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling 671

Pantheism Defined 671

Theism and Pantheism Contrasted 672

Bearing of Pantheism upon the Idea of the Existence of the Human Race 673

General Remarks upon the System 673

I. All Rationale must intuitively and necessarily Recognize the System as

Absolute Error 673

II. Pantheism cannot be Verified on Scientific Grounds 674

III. Pantheism Falls to Pieces on every Principle recognized as such by Idealism

in any of its Forms 675

IV. Evidence actually Relied Upon to Prove this System.—Its Source and

Origin Explained 676

SECTION V.

Pure Idealism.—George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 681

Schelling and Hegel 681

Ancient and Modern Idealism 681

The System Defined 683

Its General Characteristics 686

Specific Criticism on this System 689

PAGE

I. It has no Scientific Basis 689

II. It is Absolutely Impossible in Thought to Represent this System as True 690

III. The Monstrous Deductions of the System verify it as a System of False

Science 692

IV. Nothing good can be said of the System 693

V. Neither Hegel, nor any other Thinker, ever did or can fully believe this

System 694

General Remarks upon Idealism 695

I. It is constructed throughout upon Assumptions which beg all its Deductions,

near and remote 695

II. The Fixed Method of Idealism the most Lawless Conceivable 698

III. The Absurdity of a False Philosophy 699

SECTION VI.

Idealism within the Sphere of Anglo-Saxon Thought. 'Institutes of

Metaphysics,' by the late J. F. Ferrier, Professor of Moral Philosophy and

Political Economy, St. Andrews, Scotland 700

Present State of Philosophic Thought according to our Philosopher 701

What is Philosophy according to our Author? 702

The Elements of which such a System is, according to our Author, Exclusively

Constituted 703

Object and Aim of Philosophy according to our Author 704

Relations of Philosophy to Common-Sense according to our Author 705

Granting the Facts to be as Stated, What shall we do? 706

Our Author's Definition and Canon of Necessary Truth 708

Remarks on this Canon 708

A Great Service done by our Author to Philosophy 709 Very Important Fact and Principle as Stated by our Author 710

The Kantian or Sceptical Expositions of the Relations between Contingent and

Necessary Forms of Thought 710

Professor Ferrier's and the Idealistic Exposition 711

The Hypothesis of Realism 712

The Ontology of our Author 712

Fundamental Characteristics of this System 713

I. It is Constructed Throughout upon a Fundamentally False Method 713

II. In the Construction of his System, our Author Fundamentally Contradicts

his own and the Universal Canon of Necessary Truth 713

III. By our Author's Immutable Canon of Judgment, we are bound to Reject his

System 714

IV. The System is in itself Self-contradictory and Absurd 715

V. The Staple on which this whole System hangs is, in Fact and Form, a

Contingent and not a Necessary Truth, if a Truth at all 716

Our Author's Universal Formula 716

This Formula not a Self-evident or Necessary Truth 717 As Presented by our Author Himself, this Formula, if True, Embodies a

PAGE

Contingent, and not a Necessary Truth 717

Other and True Statements of our Author absolutely Verify his Formula as not,

if True at all, Presenting a Necessary, but Contingent Truth 718

This Formula is Consciously not Necessarily True 719 This is not the True, but a False Formula of Knowledge in its Universal and

Necessary Forms 719

This Formula is perfectly Contradictory to our Author's Exposition of

Philosophic Knowledge 720

This Formula, its Validity being Admitted, lays no Basis whatever for the Ultimate

Deductions of Idealism 720

Concluding Reflections on this Criticism 721

CHAPTER IV.

MATERIALISM IN ITS MOST MODERN FORM.

SECTION I.

Positivism.—Comte and Others 722

Comte's Judgment of the Real Scientific Merits of Atheism, on the one hand

and Theism, on the other 723

Positivism Defined 726

Essential Characteristics of the System 728

SECTION II.

The Present Phases of Materialism 731

The Logic of the System.—Examples from Professor Huxley 731

Examples from Professor Maudsley 733

Professor Maudsley's Method of Mental Science 734

Examples of our Professor's Inductions and Deductions 736

Remarks upon the above Deductions 737

SECTION III.

Materialism as presented in such Productions as those of Dr. Lous

Buchner 739

Facts and Principles formerly Stated and Verified 740

Mistake of Buchner and others, in respect to the Relations of External Nature

to Mind 743

SECTION IV.

THE UTILITY OF MATERIALISM AS ESTIMATED BY ITS ADVOCATES 743

SECTION V.

SPECIFIC AND SPECIAL DOGMAS OF MATERIALISM 746

SECTION VI.

THE BASIS ASSUMPTION OF MATERIALISM 748

Proof Presented of the Validity of this Assumption 748

The Illusion and Error of Materialism here 749

PAGE

SECTION VII.

FUNDAMENTAL MISAPPREHENSION OF THE REAL ISSUE BETWEEN MATERIAL IS AND

REALISM, OR THEISM 751

SECTION VIII.

THE LOGIC OF MATERIALISTS 753

Reliability of our Author and Scientists of his School in the Statement of Facts 757

Concluding Reflections 759

SECTION IX.

THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL DOCTRINES OF MODERN NATURALISM—EVOLUTION—

SPONTANEOUS GENERATION—AND DEVELOPMENT, OR TRANSMUTATION OF SPECIES 760

Terms Defined 760

The Proposition which we Propose to Verify relatively to these Doctrines 760

The Two Distinct and Opposite Hypotheses 761

Opinions of Scientists best qualified to judge of the Nature of the Evidence

presented 761

The Forms of Positive Evidence actually Presented 765

Argument Based upon Facts of 'Embryonic Development' 770

Argument Based upon Facts pertaining to Rudimentary Organs 770

Argument Based upon the General Relations of the Forms and Classes of

Vitalized Existence 771

Variations of Species Produced by Natural Selection and other Causes 774

Argument Based upon the Unverified Doctrine of Spontaneous Generation 776

Evidence Bearing upon the General Doctrine of Evolution 777

Forms of Evidence which Disprove this Theory 780

Deduction from Man's Place in Creation 782

SECTION X.

THE DOGMATISM OF MODERN NATURALISTS 784

Tyndall's Doctrine of the Scientific Use of the Imagination 784

Huxley's Sophistries Exposed 784

Tyndall's Theory Specifically Expounded and Refuted 785

An Illustrative Example of the 'Scientific Use of the Imagination' 787

Darwin's Drafts upon Time 788

Tyndall's Exposition of the Final Cause of Affirmed Facts of Transmutation and

Evolution 791

What We Can and Cannot Know of Matter 792

CHAPTER V.

THE NEW PHILOSOPHY.

SECTION I.

THE GOLDEN RULE OF SCIENCE ACCORDING TO THE ADVOCATES OF THIS PHILOSOPHY 796

SECTION II.

REALITIES OF WHICH, ACCORDING TO SPENCER, OUR IGNORANCE IS AND EVER MUST BE

ABSOLUTE 797

PAGE

Granting the Validity of these Deductions, What can we Know? 799

What must be the General Character o£ the Logical Processes by which these

Deductions can be Verified? 801

Spencer's Estimate of the Real Validity of his own Logic 802

The Actual and Specific Character of the Logical Processes by which Spencer

reaches these Deductions 802

Important Mis-statement of Facts 802

Spencer's professed Invalidation of all our 'Ultimate Religious Ideas' 805

Terms 'Inconceivable' and 'Absurd' Defined 805

The Sources of Spencer's False Deductions 807

Spencer's Professed Invalidation of 'Ultimate Religious Ideas' 808

Spencer's Argument to Reduce 'Ultimate Religious Ideas' under the Category of

the Absurd 811

The Consolation which Spencer offers us, on account of our being Robbed of

our God and our Religion 812

Spencer's Professed Invalidation of all Ultimate scientific ideas Time and Space 812

Spencer's Criticisms on Matter 816

Spencer's Criticism on the Doctrine of Motion 817

Spencer's Criticism on the Doctrine of Force 820

Spencer's Doctrine on 'the Duration of Consciousness' 821

Spencer on the Doctrine of Personal Existence 823

Spencer's Doctrine of the Relativity of all Knowledge 827

The Doctrine Explained or Defined 827

Admitting the Validity of Spencer's Arguments which we have Examined,

Phenomena must be as Unknowable as are the Realities which exist behind

Appearances 828

This Doctrine Totally Ignores and Confounds the Fundamental Distinctions

which Actually Exist between Different Classes of Phenomena 829

The Doctrine of the 'Relativity of all Knowledge' is not Intuitively True, an

cannot be Verified by Argument 830

This Doctrine has no other Basis than a mere Lawless Assumption, an

Assumption not only not Sustained by any Form or Degree of Real Evidence,

but most palpably False 831

Forms of Absolute Knowledge do Exist, Forms which are neither Phenomenal

nor Relative 832

SECTION III.

SPENCER'S DOCTRINE OF SCIENCE OR PHILOSOPHY 833

SECTION IV.

THE DATA OF PHILOSOPHY ACCORDING TO SPENCER 834

The Starting-point of Philosophy, according to Spencer 834

Remarks upon this Doctrine 835

Spencer's assumed Doctrine in Philosophy 835

Reflections on these Data 837

PAGE

These Data contradict our Author's previously affirmed Doctrine of the

Impossibility of Self-knowledge 837

According to Spencer, Consciousness is utterly Mendacious in its most, and

full Trustworthy in its less, Absolute Dicta 837

We must utterly Repudiate Spencer and the Possibility of Philosophy, or fully

Admit the Claims of Realism 838

The fixed Method of Spencer and the Disciples of the New Philosophy in

Constructing their System 839

What is Knowledge, or Knowing, according to Spencer? 839

This Doctrine renders the Commencement of Cognition Absolutely Impossible 841

This Doctrine Self-contradictory and Absurd 841

The Character of Spencer's System, commonly called the New Philosophy 842

The Ultimate Datum of Philosophy according to Spencer 843

The Fixed Direction which Philosophic Thought and Enquiry should no Take 844

The Direction given to Philosophic Thought by Spencer and the Advocates

of the New Philosophy 845

Spencer's Classification of all Manifestations as Faint and Vivid 847

Spencer's Definitions of Space, Time, Matter, Motion, Force, and other Terms 848

Definitions of the terms 'Phenomenon' and 'Appearance' 849

The terms 'Real' and 'Reality,' as Defined by Spencer 850

Spencer's Definition of Space and Time 852

Spencer's Definition of Matter 853

Spencer's Definition of Motion 854

Spencer's Definition of Force 854

Spencer's Perfected Idea of the Mission of Philosophy 856

Mission of Philosophy 856

The Mission of Philosophy as required by Spencer's Avowed Principles and

Facts, and as finally Avowed by Himself 858

The Moral Integrity of Scepticism 859

The Real Scientific Value of such Deductions 861

Spencer's Doctrine of the Indestructibility of Matter 863

The Meaning of the term 'Matter' in this Chapter 863

Spencer's Argument Relative to the Eternity of Matter and that of God 866

Spencer's Real Estimate of the Value of the Doctrine of the Indestructibility

of Matter 866

The Validity of Spencer's Philosophy Tested in the Light of His own Criterion

of such-Validity 866

Spencer's Doctrine of Motion 867

Spencer's Doctrine of Force 868

Doctrine Stated 868

Spencer's Partialism 869

The Character of Spencer's 'Ultimate of Ultimates,' viz., Force 870

Spencer's Reason for Rejecting the Theistic, and Adopting the Atheistic

Hypothesis, in regard to the Character of the 'Ultimate of Ultimates' 872

PAGE

In the above Passage, Spencer's Blank Atheism becomes Undeniably Manifest 873

Spencer's Definition of Mind 874

Character of Spencer's Argument 875

The Conceivable and Inconceivable, the Possible and Impossible, according to

Spencer 876

General Characteristics of the New Philosophy 877

SECTION V.

CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS 886

The Number and Genesis of all Possible Systems of Philosophy Designated 888

Necessary Logical Consequences of the above Facts 890

The Influence of these Systems upon the Race, should their Dominion become

Universal 892

The Future of these Godless Philosophies 899

APPENDIX.

CHAPTER I.

HOW IT IS THAT PROFESSEDLY SCIENTIFIC LANGUAGE NOT UNFREQUENTLY REPRESENTS NO IDEAS OF ANY KIND WHATEVER

SECTION I.

AN ATTEMPT TO REPRESENT MENTAL OPERATIONS AS MATERIAL FACTS 906

SECTION II.

THE ATTEMPT TO EXPLAIN FACTS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER AS PHENOMENA OF

MIND 908

SECTION III.

ASSUMING THAT WHICH CAN BE CONCEIVED OF BUT AS AN ATTRIBUTE OF SOME

KNOWN SUBSTANCE, AS IN ITSELF A REAL EXISTING THING, AND THE SUBSTANCE OF

REALITIES AS ACTUALLY MANIFESTED TO THE MIND 910

SECTION IV.

ASSUMING ALL REALITIES TO BE UNKNOWABLE AND UNKNOWN, AND THEN ATTEMPTING

FROM THIS STANDPOINT TO EXPLAIN THE UNIVERSE 918

CHAPTER II.

INDICATIONS OF THE PLAN OF A WORK WHICH, FOR WANT OF

TIME, WILL PROBABLY NEVER APPEAR 927

CHAPTER III.

THE TRUE PHILOSOPHY.

Characteristics of the True System 937

General Classification and Division of all Mental Phenomena and Faculties 937

PAGE

The Intellectual Faculties 938

The Primary Faculties 938

General Remarks upon the above Classification of the Facts and Faculties of

Primitive Intuition 940

The Chronological and Logical Order of these Intuitions 940

Fundamental Errors of the Schools in respect to these Intuitions 940

Each of the Primary Faculties has, within its own Exclusive Sphere, Equal and

Absolute Authority for Truth 941

Fundamental Characteristics of all True and False Systems of Cosmology 942

The Secondary Intellectual Faculties 943

Conceptions and the Faculty which they imply, that is, the Conceptive Faculty,

or the Understanding 943

Spirit, Matter, Time, and Space, the only Realities actually represented or

representable in Human Thought 944

Our Real Apprehensions of neither of these Realities can, by no possibility, be

Self-contradictory or Absurd 944 Fundamental Error of Spencer in regard to Conceptions 945 Real or Absolutely Valid Conceptions, as distinguished from those which

have only a Relative Validity 945

Conceivability and Inconceivability as Tests of Truth 946

On what Conditions can Matter be Identified with Spirit, or Spirit with Matter? 947

How it is that all real Meaning so often drops out of Language as employed by

the Schools 948

The Faculty of Judgment 949

Principles in Science 950

Facts of Science 951

Deductions which are Valid for Truth 951

Error, how Introduced into Thought, that of Science especially 952

Principles of Science, and Assumptions employed as Principles 953

Knowledge in its Real and Valid Forms as distinguished from all Forms of mere

Opinion, Belief, Conjecture, etc. 955

Assumptions in respect to Valid and Invalid Hypotheses 956

Assumptions within the Sphere of Valid and Invalid Deduction 956

The Sentiment Induced in the Mind by Lawless Assumption 957

Common Error in Regard to the Basis of Religious Faith 959

Memory and the Imagination 960

Recapitulation of the above Analysis of the Mental Faculties 961

Character of the System of Mental Science indicated by the above Analysis 961

1. Its Completeness and Perfection 961

2. This System fully Explains and Determines the Origin, Character, and

Special and Peculiar Spheres of all the Sciences 962

3. This System Explains the Origin and Character of Error in all its Forms,

and furnishes Infallible Criteria by which Truth may be Distinguished

from Error 963

PAGE

4. This System Absolutely Vindicates for Realism, in all its forms, a Strictly

Scientific Basis and Validity 964

5. The above Analysis and Elucidation of the Mental Faculties renders

Demonstrably Evident the Fact that all Systems Opposed to Realism have

no other Basis than Lawless Assumption 965 Fundamental Errors in the Common Systems of Mental Science 967

1. All in common fail to Recognize the Element of Implied Knowledge, and

Reason as the Organ of such Knowledge 967

2. Many of these Treatises fundamentally err in their Enumeration of the

Mental Faculties 968

3. Others admit the Reality of the Reason, but, by mislocating the Faculty,

darken instead of elucidate the Science of Mind 968

APPENDIX II.

INDEX OF PHILOSOPHERS AND PEOPLE IN HISTORY. 978

APPENDIX III.

LISTING OF WORKS BY ASA MAHAN. 985


FOREWORD BY THE PRESENT EDITOR.

PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.
With Recommendations.

VOLUME I. & II. INDEX.
General Introduction.
Part I. The Oriental Philosophy.
Part II. The Grecian Philosophy.
Part III. The Christian Evolution in Philosophy.

Volume II.




Copyright 2002 Alethea In Heart Ministries

A Critical History of Philosophy. By Asa Mahan in 1883. Forward.