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THE ATONEMENT, MORAL AND PHYSICAL DEPRAVITY,
NATURAL, MORAL, AND GRACIOUS ABILITY, REPENTANCE, FAITH,
JUSTIFICATION, SANCTIFICATION, &c.
REV. CHARLES G. FINNEY,
PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGY IN THE OBERLIN COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE, OHIO, AMERICA.
THE WHOLE WORK REVISED, ENLARGED, AND PARTLY RE-WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR,
DURING HIS LATE VISIT TO ENGLAND.
EDITED AND REVISED, WITH AN INTRODUCTION,
REV. GEORGE REDFORD, D.D., LL.D,
The only source for these lectures came from the printed 1851 English edition of SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY by Charles Finney. This is 100% Finney with no deletions or additions. This version had been out of print for over 150 years. This version is the pure standard. All other versions of SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY are taken from this version.
PREFACE BY THE EDITOR.
PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.
Various classes of truths, and how the mind attains to a knowledge of them
LECTURE II. -- Moral Government.
Definition of the term law . . Distinction between physical and moral law . . The essential attributes of moral law . . Subjectivity . . Objectivity . . Liberty, as opposed to necessity . . Fitness . . Universality . . Impartiality . . Justice . . Practicability . . Independence . . Immutability . . Unity . . Equity . . Expediency . . Exclusiveness
LECTURE III. -- Moral Government--Continued.
Definition of the term government . . Distinction between moral and physical government . . The fundamental reason of moral government . . Whose right it is to govern . . What is implied in the right to govern . . Point out the limits of this right . . What is implied in moral government . . Moral obligation . . The conditions of moral obligation . . Remarks
LECTURE IV. -- Moral Government--Continued.
Man a subject of moral obligation . . Extent of moral obligation . . Shown by an appeal to reason, or to natural theology, to what acts and states of mind moral obligation cannot directly extend . . Shown to what acts and states of mind moral obligation must directly extend . . To what acts and mental states moral obligation indirectly extends
LECTURE V. -- Foundation of Moral Obligation.
What is intended by the foundation of moral obligation . . The extent of moral obligation . . Remind you of the distinction between the ground and conditions of obligation . . Points of agreement among the principal parties in this discussion . . Wherein they disagree . . That the sovereign will of God is not the foundation of moral obligation . . The theory of Paley . . The utilitarian philosophy
LECTURE VI. -- Foundation of Moral Obligation. False Theories.
The theory that regards right as the foundation of moral obligation
LECTURE VII. -- Foundation of Moral Obligation. False Theories.
The theory that the goodness or moral excellence of God is the foundation of moral obligation
LECTURE VIII. -- Foundation of Moral Obligation. False Theories.
The philosophy which teaches that moral order is the foundation of moral obligation . . The theory that maintains that the nature and relations of moral beings is the true foundation of moral obligation . . The theory that teaches that moral obligation is founded in the idea of duty . . That philosophy which teaches the complexity of the foundation of moral obligation
LECTURE IX. -- Foundation of Obligation.
Another form of the theory that affirms the complexity of the foundation of moral obligation; complex however only in a certain sense
LECTURE X. -- Foundation of Obligation.
The intrinsic absurdity of various theories
LECTURE XII. -- Foundation of Moral Obligation. Practical Bearings of the Different Theories.
The theory that regards the sovereign will of God as the foundation of moral obligation . . The theory of the selfish school . . The natural and necessary results of utilitarianism
LECTURE XIII. -- Practical Bearings and Tendency of Rightarianism.
The philosophy which teaches that the divine goodness or moral excellence is the foundation of moral obligation . . The theory which teaches that moral order is the foundation of moral obligation . . The practical bearings of the theory that moral obligation is founded in the nature and relations of moral agents . . The theory which teaches that the idea of duty is the foundation of moral obligation . . The complexity of the foundation of moral obligation . . The practical bearings of what is regarded as the true theory of the foundation of moral obligation, viz. that the highest well-being of God and of the universe is the sole foundation of moral obligation
LECTURE XIV. -- Moral Government--Continued.
What constitutes obedience to moral law . . Obedience cannot be partial in the sense that the subject ever does or can partly obey and partly disobey at the same time . . Can the will at the same time make opposite choices? . . The choice of an ultimate end is, and must be, the supreme preference of the mind . . An intelligent choice must respect ends or means . . No choice whatever can be made inconsistent with the present choice of an ultimate end . . Inquiry respecting the strength or intensity of the choice . . The law does not require the constant and most intense action of the will . . An intention cannot be right and honest in kind, and deficient in the degree of intensity . . Examination of the philosophy of the question, whether sin and holiness consist in supreme, ultimate, and opposite choices or intentions . . Objections to the foregoing philosophy considered . . This philosophy examined in the light of the scriptures
LECTURE XV. -- Moral Government--Continued.
In what sense we have seen that obedience to moral law cannot be partial . . In what sense obedience to moral law can be partial . . The government of God accepts nothing as virtue but obedience to the law of God . . There can be no rule of duty but moral law . . Nothing can be virtue or true religion but obedience to the moral law . . Nothing can be virtue that is not just what the moral law demands. That is, nothing short of what it requires can be in any sense virtue . . Uses of the term justification . . Fundamentally important inquiries respecting this subject . . Remarks
LECTURE XVI. -- Moral Government--Continued.
What constitutes obedience to moral law . . Just rules of legal interpretation . . That actual knowledge is indispensable to moral obligation shown from scripture . . In the light of the above rules, inquire what is not implied in entire obedience to the law of God
LECTURE XVII. -- Moral Government--Continued.
What is implied in obedience to the moral law . . Call attention to certain facts in mental philosophy, as they are revealed in consciousness . . Point out the attributes of that love which constitutes obedience to the law of God . . Voluntariness . . Liberty . . Intelligence . . Virtuousness . . Disinterestedness . . Impartiality . . Universality
LECTURE XVIII. -- Attributes of Love.
Efficiency . . Penitence . . Faith . . Complacency
LECTURE XIX. -- Attributes of Love--Continued.
Opposition to Sin . . Compassion
LECTURE XX. -- Attributes of Love--Continued.
Mercy . . Justice . . Veracity
LECTURE XXI. -- Attributes of Love--Continued.
Patience . . Meekness . . Long-suffering . . Humility
LECTURE XXII. -- Attributes of Love--Continued.
Self-denial . . Condescension . . Candour . . Stability . . Kindness . . Severity
LECTURE XXIII. -- Attributes of Love--Continued.
Holiness, or Purity . . Modesty . . Sobriety . . Sincerity . . Zeal . . Unity . . Simplicity
LECTURE XXIV. -- Attributes of Love--Continued.
Gratitude . . Wisdom . . Grace . . Economy
LECTURE XXV. -- Moral Government.
Revert to some points that have been settled . . Show what disobedience to moral law cannot consist in . . What disobedience to moral law must consist in
LECTURE XXVI. -- Moral Government.
What constitutes disobedience . . What is not implied in disobedience to the law of God
LECTURE XXVII. -- Attributes of Selfishness.
What constitutes disobedience to moral law . . What is implied in disobedience to moral law . . Attributes of Selfishness. Voluntariness . . Liberty . . Intelligence . . Unreasonableness . . Interestedness . . Partiality . . Impenitence . . Unbelief
LECTURE XXVIII. -- Attributes of Selfishness--Continued.
Efficiency . . Opposition to benevolence or to virtue . . Cruelty . . Injustice
LECTURE XXIX. -- Attributes of Selfishness--Continued.
Oppression . . Hostility . . Unmercifulness . . Falsehood, or lying . . Pride
LECTURE XXX. -- Attributes of Selfishness--Continued.
Enmity . . Madness . . Impatience . . Intemperance . . Moral recklessness . . Unity
LECTURE XXXI. -- Attributes of Selfishness--Continued.
Egotism . . Simplicity . . Total moral depravity implied in selfishness as one of its attributes . . The scriptures assume and affirm it . . Remarks
LECTURE XXXII. -- Moral Government--Continued.
A return to obedience to moral law is and must be, under every dispensation of the divine government, the unalterable condition of salvation . . Under a gracious dispensation, a return to full obedience to moral law is not dispensed with as a condition of salvation, but this obedience is secured by the indwelling spirit of Christ received by faith to reign in the heart
LECTURE XXXIII. -- Moral Government--Continued.
What constitutes the sanctions of law . . There can be no law without sanctions . . In what light sanctions are to be regarded . . The end to be secured by law, and the execution of penal sanctions . . By what rule sanctions ought to be graduated . . God's law has sanctions . . What constitutes the remuneratory sanctions of the law of God . . The perfection and duration of the remuneratory sanctions of the law of God . . What constitutes the vindicatory sanctions of the law of God . . Duration of the penal sanctions of the law of God . . Inquire into the meaning of the term infinite . . Infinites may differ indefinitely in amount . . I must remind you of the rule by which degrees of guilt are to be estimated . . That all and every sin must from its very nature involve infinite guilt in the sense of deserving endless punishment . . Notwithstanding all sin deserves endless punishment, yet the guilt of different persons may vary indefinitely, and punishment, although always endless in duration, may and ought to vary in degree, according to the guilt of each individual . . That penal inflictions under the government of God must be endless . . Examine this question in the light of revelation
LECTURE XXXIV. -- Atonement.
I will call attention to several well established governmental principles . . Define the term atonement . . I am to inquire into the teachings of natural theology, or into the à priori affirmations of reason upon this subject . . The fact of atonement . . The design of the atonement . . Christ's obedience to the moral law as a covenant of works, did not constitute the atonement . . The atonement was not a commercial transaction . . The atonement of Christ was intended as a satisfaction of public justice . . His taking human nature, and obeying unto death, under such circumstances, constituted a good reason for our being treated as righteous
LECTURE XXXV. -- Extent of Atonement.
For whose benefit the atonement was intended . . Objections answered . . Remarks on the atonement
LECTURE XXXVI. -- Human Government.
The ultimate end of God in creation . . Providential and moral governments are indispensable means of securing the highest good of the universe . . Civil and family governments are indispensable to the securing of this end, and are therefore really a part of the providential and moral government of God . . Human governments are a necessity of human nature . . This necessity will continue as long as human beings exist in this world . . Human governments are plainly recognized in the Bible as a part of the moral government of God . . It is the duty of all men to aid in the establishment and support of human government . . It is absurd to suppose that human governments can ever be dispensed with in the present world . . Objections answered . . Inquire into the foundation of the right of human governments . . Point out the limits or boundary of this right
LECTURE XXXVII. -- Human Governments--Continued.
The reasons why God has made no form of civil government universally obligatory . . The particular forms of state government must and will depend upon the virtue and intelligence of the people . . That form of government is obligatory, that is best suited to meet the necessities of the people . . Revolutions become necessary and obligatory, when the virtue and intelligence or the vice and ignorance of the people demand them . . In what cases human legislation is valid, and in what cases it is null and void . . In what cases we are bound to disobey human governments . . Apply the foregoing principles to the rights and duties of governments and subjects in relation to the execution of the necessary penalties of law
LECTURE XXXVIII. -- Moral Depravity.
Definition of the term depravity . . Point out the distinction between physical and moral depravity . . Of what physical depravity can be predicated . . Of what moral depravity can be predicated . . Mankind are both physically and morally depraved . . Subsequent to the commencement of moral agency and previous to regeneration the moral depravity of mankind is universal . . The moral depravity of the unregenerate moral agents of our race, is total
LECTURE XXXIX. -- Moral Depravity--Continued.
Proper method of accounting for the universal and total moral depravity of the unregenerate moral agents of our race . . Moral depravity consists in selfishness, or in the choice of self-interest, self-gratification, or self-indulgence, as an end . . Dr. Wood's view of physical and moral depravity examined . . Standards of the Presbyterian Church examined
LECTURE XL. -- Moral Depravity--Continued.
Further examination of the arguments adduced in support of the position that human nature is in itself sinful
LECTURE XLI. -- Moral Depravity--Continued.
The proper method of accounting for moral depravity . . Pres. Edwards's views examined . . Summary of the truth on this subject . . Remarks
LECTURE XLII. -- Regeneration.
The common distinction between regeneration and conversion . . I am to state the assigned reasons for this distinction . . I am to state the objections to this distinction . . What regeneration is not . . What regeneration is . . The universal necessity of regeneration . . Agencies employed in regeneration . . Instrumentalities employed in the work . . In regeneration the subject is both passive and active . . What is implied in regeneration
LECTURE XLIII. -- Regeneration--Continued.
Philosophical theories of regeneration . . The different theories of regeneration examined . . Objections to the taste scheme . . The divine efficiency scheme . . Objections to the divine efficiency . . The susceptibility scheme . . Theory of a divine moral suasion . . Objections to this theory . . Remarks
LECTURE XLIV. -- Regeneration--Continued.
Evidences of regeneration . . Introductory remarks . . Wherein the experience and outward life of saints and sinners may agree . . Remarks
LECTURE XLV. -- Regeneration--Continued.
Wherein saints and sinners or deceived professors must differ
LECTURE XLVI. -- Regeneration--Continued.
In what saints and sinners differ . . What is it to overcome the world? . . Who are those that overcome the world? . . Why do believers overcome the world?
LECTURE XLVII. -- Regeneration--Continued.
Wherein saints and sinners differ
LECTURE XLVIII. -- Natural Ability.
Show what is the Edwardean notion of ability . . This natural ability is no ability at all . . What, according to this school, constitutes natural inability . . This natural inability is no inability at all . . Natural ability is identical with freedom or liberty of will . . The human will is free, therefore men have ability to do all their duty
LECTURE XLIX. -- Moral Ability.
What constitutes moral inability according to the Edwardean school . . Their moral inability consists in real disobedience, and a natural inability to obey . . This pretended distinction between natural and moral inability is nonsensical . . What constitutes moral ability according to this school . . Their moral ability to obey God is nothing else than real obedience, and a natural inability to disobey
LECTURE L. -- Inability.
What is thought to be the fundamental error of the Edwardean school on the subject of ability . . State the philosophy of the scheme of inability about to be considered . . The claims of this philosophy
LECTURE LI. -- Gracious Ability.
What is intended by the term . . This doctrine as held is an absurdity . . In what sense a gracious ability is possible
LECTURE LII. -- The Notion of Inability.
Proper mode of accounting for it
[There is no Lecture LIII in the printed book. The lectures are incorrectly numbered. In the Contents of the printed book, the next five lectures are numbered LIII-LVII. Then there are two entries for 'Entire sanctification is attainable in this life' numbered LVIII and LIX.]
LECTURE LIV. -- Repentance and Impenitence.
What repentance is not, and what it is . . What is implied in it . . What impenitence is not . . What it is . . Some things that are implied in it . . Some evidences of it
LECTURE LV. -- Faith and Unbelief.
What evangelical faith is not . . What it is . . What is implied in it . . What unbelief is not . . What it is,--What is implied in it . . Conditions of both faith and unbelief . . The guilt and desert of unbelief . . Natural and governmental consequences of both faith and unbelief
LECTURE LVI. -- Justification.
What justification is not . . What it is . . Conditions of gospel justification
LECTURE LVII. -- Sanctification.
An account of the recent discussions that have been had on this subject
LECTURE LVIII. -- Sanctification.
Remind you of some points that have been settled in this course of study . . Definition of the principal terms to be used in this discussion
LECTURE LIX. -- Sanctification.
Entire sanctification is attainable in this life
LECTURE LX. -- Sanctification.
LECTURE LXI. -- Sanctification.
Paul entirely sanctified
LECTURE LXII. -- Sanctification.
Condition of its attainment
LECTURE LXIII. -- Sanctification.
Condition of its attainment--continued . . Relations of Christ to the believer
LECTURE LXIV. -- Sanctification.
Relations of Christ to the believer--continued
LECTURE LXV. -- Sanctification.
Relations of Christ to the believer--continued
LECTURE LXVI. -- Sanctification.
Relations of Christ to the believer--continued
LECTURE LXVII. -- Sanctification.
Relations of Christ to the believer--continued
LECTURE LXVIII. -- Sanctification.
LECTURE LXIX. -- Sanctification.
Tendency of the denial that Christians have valid grounds of hope that they should obtain a victory over sin in this life
LECTURE LXX. -- Sanctification.
LECTURE LXXI. -- Sanctification.
LECTURE LXXII. -- Sanctification.
LECTURE LXXIII. -- Sanctification.
Purposes of God
LECTURE LXXVIII. -- Perseverance of Saints.
Notice the different kinds of certainty . . What is not intended by the perseverance of the saints
Perseverance of Saints proved
LECTURE LXXX. -- Perseverance of Saints.
Further objections considered
LECTURE LXXXI. -- Perseverance of Saints.
Consideration of principal arguments in support of the doctrine
LECTURE LXXXII. -- Perseverance of Saints.
[In the Contents of the printed book, there is no entry for Lecture LXXXIII.]
LECTURE LXXXIII. -- Perseverance of Saints.
Further objections answered
Reply to "Princeton Biblical Repertory" . . Reply to Dr. Duffield