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The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah

by

Alfred Edersheim


Table of Contents

About This Book

Title Page

Preface to the First Edition.

Preface to the Second and Third Editions.

List of Authorities

List of Abbreviations and References to Rabbinic Writings.


Book I. Introductory. The Preparation for the Gospel; the Jewish world in the days of Christ

CHAPTER I. THE JEWISH WORLD IN THE DAYS OF CHRIST - THE JEWISH DISPERSION IN THE EAST.

CHAPTER II. THE JEWISH DISPERSION IN THE WEST - THE HELLENISTS - ORIGIN OF HELLENIST LITERATURE IN THE GREEK TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE - CHARACTER OF THE SEPTUAGINT.

CHAPTER III. THE OLD FAITH PREPARING FOR THE NEW - DEVELOPMENT OF HELLENIST THEOLOGY: THE APOCRYPHA, ARISTEAS, ARISTOBULUS, AND THE PSEUDEPIGRAPHIC WRITINGS.

CHAPTER IV. PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA, THE RABBIS, AND THE GOSPELS - THE FINAL DEVELOPMENT OF HELLENISM IN ITS RELATION TO RABBINISM AND THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN.

CHAPTER V. ALEXANDRIA AND ROME - THE JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN THE CAPITALS OF WESTERN CIVILISATION.

CHAPTER VI. POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE JEWISH DISPERSION IN THE WEST - THEIR UNION IN THE GREAT HOPE OF THE COMING DELIVERER.

CHAPTER VII. IN PALESTINE - JEWS AND GENTILES IN 'THE LAND' - THEIR MUTUAL RELATIONS AND FEELINGS - 'THE WALL OF SEPARATION.'

CHAPTER VIII. TRADITIONALISM, ITS ORIGIN, CHARACTER, AND LITERATURE - THE MISHNAH AND TALMUD - THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST - THE DAWN OF A NEW DAY.


Book II. From the Manger in Bethlehem to the Baptism in Jordan.

CHAPTER I. IN JERUSALEM WHEN HEROD REIGNED

CHAPTER II. THE PERSONAL HISTORY OF HEROD - THE TWO WORLDS IN JERUSALEM.

CHAPTER III. THE ANNUNCIATION OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST

CHAPTER IV. THE ANNUNCIATION OF JESUS THE MESSIAH, AND THE BIRTH OF HIS FORERUNNER.

CHAPTER V. WHAT MESSIAH DID THE JEWS EXPECT?

CHAPTER VI. THE NATIVITY OF JESUS THE MESSIAH.

CHAPTER VII. THE PURIFICATION OF THE VIRGIN AND THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE

CHAPTER VIII. THE VISIT AND HOMAGE OF THE MAGI, AND THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT

CHAPTER IX. THE CHILD-LIFE IN NAZARETH

CHAPTER X. IN THE HOUSE OF HIS HEAVENLY, AND IN THE HOME OF HIS EARTHLY FATHER - THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM - THE RETIREMENT AT NAZARETH.

CHAPTER XI. IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF TIBERIUS CĂSAR AND UNDER THE PONTIFICATE OF ANNAS AND CAIAPHAS - A VOICE IN THE WILDERNESS

CHAPTER XII. THE BAPTISM OF JESUS: ITS HIGHER MEANING.


Book III. The Ascent: From the River Jordan to the Mount of Transfiguration.

CHAPTER I. THE TEMPTATION OF JESUS

CHAPTER II. THE DEPUTATION FROM JERUSALEM - THE THREE SECTS OF THE PHARISEES, SADDUCEES, AND ESSENES - EXAMINATION OF THEIR DISTINCTIVE DOCTRINES.[1480]

CHAPTER III. THE TWOFOLD TESTIMONY OF JOHN - THE FIRST SABBATH OF JESUS'S MINISTRY - THE FIRST SUNDAY - THE FIRST DISCIPLES.

CHAPTER IV. THE MARRIAGE FEAST IN CANA OF GALILEE - THE MIRACLE THAT IS 'A SIGN.'

CHAPTER V. THE CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE - 'THE SIGN,' WHICH IS NOT A SIGN.

CHAPTER VI. THE TEACHER COME FROM GOD AND THE TEACHER FROM JERUSALEM - JESUS AND NICODEMUS

CHAPTER VII. IN JUDĂA AND THROUGH SAMARIA - A SKETCH OF SAMARITAN HISTORY AND THEOLOGY - JEWS AND SAMARITANS.

CHAPTER VIII. JESUS AT THE WELL OF SYCHAR

CHAPTER IX. THE SECOND VISIT TO CANA - CURE OF THE 'NOBLEMAN'S' SON AT CAPERNAUM.

CHAPTER X. THE SYNAGOGUE AT NAZARETH - SYNAGOGUE-WORSHIP AND ARRANGEMENTS.

CHAPTER XI. THE FIRST GALILEAN MINISTRY.

CHAPTER XII. AT THE 'UNKNOWN' FEAST IN JERUSALEM, AND BY THE POOL OF BETHESDA.

CHAPTER XIII. BY THE SEA OF GALILEE - THE FINAL CALL OF THE FIRST DISCIPLES, AND THE MIRACULOUS DRAUGHT OF FISHES

CHAPTER XIV. A SABBATH IN CAPERNAUM

CHAPTER XV. SECOND JOURNEY THROUGH GALILEE - THE HEALING OF THE LEPER.

CHAPTER XVI. THE RETURN TO CAPERNAUM - CONCERNING THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS - THE HEALING OF THE PARALYSED

CHAPTER XVII. THE CALL OF MATTHEW - THE SAVIOUR'S WELCOME TO SINNERS - RABBINIC THEOLOGY AS REGARDS THE DOCTRINE OF FORGIVENESS IN CONTRAST TO THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST - THE CALL OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES.

CHAPTER XVIII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT - THE KINGDOM OF CHRIST AND RABBINIC TEACHING.[2499]

CHAPTER XIX. THE RETURN TO CAPERNAUM - HEALING OF THE CENTURION'S SERVANT.

CHAPTER XX. THE RAISING OF THE YOUNG MAN OF NAIN - THE MEETING OF LIFE AND DEATH.

CHAPTER XXI. THE WOMAN WHICH WAS A SINNER

CHAPTER XXII. THE MINISTRY OF LOVE, THE BLASPHEMY OF HATRED, AND THE MISTAKES OF EARTHLY AFFECTION - THE RETURN TO CAPERNAUM - HEALING OF THE DEMONISED DUMB - PHARISAIC CHARGE AGAINST CHRIST - THE VISIT OF CHRIST'S MOTHER AND BRETHREN

CHAPTER XXIII. NEW TEACHING 'IN PARABLES' - THE PARABLES TO THE PEOPLE BY THE LAKE OF GALILEE, AND THOSE TO THE DISCIPLES IN CAPERNAUM

CHAPTER XXIV. CHRIST STILLS THE STORM ON THE LAKE OF GALILEE.

CHAPTER XXV. AT GERASA - THE HEALING OF THE DEMONISED.

CHAPTER XXVI. THE HEALING OF THE WOMAN - CHRIST'S PERSONAL APPEARANCE - THE RAISING OF JAIRUS' DAUGHTER

CHAPTER XXVII. SECOND VISIT TO NAZARETH - THE MISSION OF THE TWELVE.

CHAPTER XXVIII. THE STORY OF THE BAPTIST, FROM HIS LAST TESTIMONY TO JESUS TO HIS BEHEADING IN PRISON

CHAPTER XXIX. THE MIRACULOUS FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND

CHAPTER XXX. THE NIGHT OF MIRACLES ON THE LAKE OF GENNESARET

CHAPTER XXXI. THE CAVILS OF THE PHARISEES CONCERNING PURIFICATION, AND THE TEACHING OF THE LORD CONCERNING PURITY - THE TRADITIONS CONCERNING 'HAND-WASHING' AND 'VOWS.'

CHAPTER XXXII. THE GREAT CRISIS IN POPULAR FEELING - THE LAST DISCOURSES IN THE SYNAGOGUE OF CAPERNAUM - CHRIST THE BREAD OF LIFE - 'WILL YE ALSO GO AWAY?'

CHAPTER XXXIII. JESUS AND THE SYRO-PHOENICIAN WOMAN

CHAPTER XXXIV. A GROUP OF MIRACLES AMONG A SEMI-HEATHEN POPULATION

CHAPTER XXXV. THE TWO SABBATH-CONTROVERSIES - THE PLUCKING OF THE EARS OF CORN BY THE DISCIPLES, AND THE HEALING OF THE MAN WITH THE WITHERED HAND

CHAPTER XXXVI. THE FEEDING OF THE FOUR THOUSAND - TO DALMANUTHA - 'THE SIGN FROM HEAVEN' - JOURNEY TO CĂSAREA PHILIPPI - WHAT IS THE LEAVEN OF THE PHARISEES AND SADDUCEES?

CHAPTER XXXVII. THE GREAT CONFESSION - THE GREAT COMMISSION - THE GREAT INSTRUCTION - THE GREAT TEMPTATION - THE GREAT DECISION.


Book IV. The Descent: From the Mount of Transfiguration into the Valley of Humiliation and Death.

CHAPTER I. THE TRANSFIGURATION.

CHAPTER II. ON THE MORROW OF THE TRANSFIGURATION

CHAPTER III. THE LAST EVENTS IN GALILEE - THE TRIBUTE-MONEY, THE DISPUTE BY THE WAY, THE FORBIDDING OF HIM WHO COULD NOT FOLLOW WITH THE DISCIPLES, AND THE CONSEQUENT TEACHING OF CHRIST.

CHAPTER IV. THE JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM - CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE LAST PART OF THE GOSPEL-NARRATIVES - FIRST INCIDENTS BY THE WAY.

CHAPTER V. FURTHER INCIDENTS OF THE JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM - THE MISSION AND RETURN OF THE SEVENTY - THE HOME AT BETHANY - MARTHA AND MARY

CHAPTER VI. AT THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES - FIRST DISCOURSE IN THE TEMPLE

CHAPTER VII. IN THE LAST, THE GREAT DAY OF THE FEAST'

CHAPTER VIII. TEACHING IN THE TEMPLE ON THE OCTAVE OF THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.

CHAPTER IX. THE HEALING OF THE MAN BORN BLIND.

CHAPTER X. THE 'GOOD SHEPHERD' AND HIS 'ONE FLOCK' - LAST DISCOURSE AT THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.

CHAPTER XI. THE FIRST PERĂAN DISCOURSES - TO THE PHARISEES CONCERNING THE TWO KINGDOMS - THEIR CONTEST - WHAT QUALIFIES A DISCIPLE FOR THE KINGDOM OF GOD, AND HOW ISRAEL WAS BECOMING SUBJECT TO THAT OF EVIL.

CHAPTER XII. THE MORNING-MEAL IN THE PHARISEE'S HOUSE - MEALS AND FEASTS AMONG THE JEWS - CHRIST'S LAST PERĂAN WARNING TO PHARISAISM

CHAPTER XIII. TO THE DISCIPLES - TWO EVENTS AND THEIR MORAL.

CHAPTER XIV. AT THE FEAST OF THE DEDICATION OF THE TEMPLE.

CHAPTER XV. THE SECOND SERIES OF PARABLES - THE TWO PARABLES OF HIM WHO IS NEIGHBOUR TO US: THE FIRST, CONCERNING THE LOVE THAT, UNASKED, GIVES IN OUR NEED; THE SECOND, CONCERNING THE LOVE WHICH IS ELICITED BY OUR ASKING IN OUR NEED.

CHAPTER XVI. THE THREE PARABLES OF WARNING: TO THE INDIVIDUAL, TO THE NATION, AND TO THE THEOCRACY - THE FOOLISH RICH MAN - THE BARREN FIG-TREE - THE GREAT SUPPER.

CHAPTER XVII. THE THREE PARABLES OF THE GOSPEL: OF THE RECOVERY OF THE LOST - OF THE LOST SHEEP, THE LOST DRACHM, THE LOST SON.

CHAPTER XVIII. THE UNJUST STEWARD - DIVES AND LAZARUS - JEWISH AGRICULTURAL NOTES - PRICES OF PRODUCE - WRITING AND LEGAL DOCUMENTS - PURPLE AND FINE LINEN - JEWISH NOTIONS OF HADES.

CHAPTER XIX. THE THREE LAST PARABLES OF THE PERĂAN SERIES: THE UNRIGHTEOUS JUDGE - THE SELF-RIGHTEOUS PHARISEE AND THE PUBLICAN - THE UNMERCIFUL SERVANT

CHAPTER XX. CHRIST'S DISCOURSES IN PERĂA - CLOSE OF THE PERĂAN MINISTRY

CHAPTER XXI. THE DEATH AND THE RAISING OF LAZARUS - THE QUESTION OF MIRACLES AND OF THIS MIRACLE OF MIRACLES - VIEWS OF NEGATIVE CRITICISM ON THIS HISTORY - JEWISH BURYING-RITES AND SEPULCHRES.

CHAPTER XXII. ON THE JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM - DEPARTURE FROM EPHRAIM BY WAY OF SAMARIA AND GALILEE - HEALING OF TEN LEPERS - PROPHETIC DISCOURSE OF THE COMING KINGDOM - ON DIVORCE: JEWISH VIEWS OF IT - THE BLESSING TO LITTLE CHILDREN

CHAPTER XXIII. THE LAST INCIDENTS IN PERĂA - THE YOUNG RULER WHO WENT AWAY SORROWFUL - TO LEAVE ALL FOR CHRIST - PROPHECY OF HIS PASSION - THE REQUEST OF SALOME, AND OF JAMES AND JOHN.

CHAPTER XXIV. IN JERICHO AND AT BETHANY - JERICHO - A GUEST WITH ZACCHĂUS - THE HEALING OF BLIND BARTIMĂUS - THE PLOT AT JERUSALEM - AT BETHANY, AND IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON THE LEPER


Book V. The Cross and the Crown.

CHAPTER I. THE FIRST DAY IN PASSION-WEEK - PALM-SUNDAY - THE ROYAL ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM

CHAPTER II. THE SECOND DAY IN PASSION-WEEK - THE BARREN FIG-TREE - THE CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE - THE HOSANNA OF THE CHILDREN

CHAPTER III. THE THIRD DAY IN PASSION-WEEK - THE EVENTS OF THAT DAY - THE QUESTION OF CHRIST'S AUTHORITY - THE QUESTION OF TRIBUTE TO CĂSAR - THE WIDOW'S FARTHING - THE GREEKS WHO SOUGHT TO SEE JESUS - SUMMARY AND RETROSPECT OF THE PUBLIC MINISTRY OF CHRIST

CHAPTER IV. THE THIRD DAY IN PASSION-WEEK - THE LAST CONTROVERSIES AND DISCOURSES - THE SADDUCEES AND THE RESURRECTION - THE SCRIBE AND THE GREAT COMMANDMENT - QUESTION TO THE PHARISEES ABOUT DAVID'S SON AND LORD - FINAL WARNING TO THE PEOPLE: THE EIGHT 'WOES' - FAREWELL.

CHAPTER V. THE THIRD DAY IN PASION-WEEK - THE LAST SERIES OF PARABLES: TO THE PHARISEES AND TO THE PEOPLE - ON THE WAY TO JERUSALEM: THE PARABLE OF THE LABOURERS IN THE VINEYARD - IN THE TEMPLE: THE PARABLE OF THE 'NO' AND 'YES' OF THE TWO SONS - THE PARABLE OF THE EVIL HUSBANDMEN EVILLY DESTROYED - THE PARABLE OF THE MARRIAGE OF THE KING'S SON AND OF THE WEDDING GARMENT

CHAPTER VI. THE EVENING OF THE THIRD DAY IN PASSION-WEEK - ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES: DISCOURES TO THE DISCIPLES CONCERNING THE LAST THINGS.

CHAPTER VII. EVENING OF THE THIRD DAY IN PASSION-WEEK-ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES-LAST PARABLES: TO THE DISCIPLES CONCERNING THE LAST THINGS-THE PARABLE OF THE TEN VIRGINS-THE PARABLE OF THE TALENTS-SUPPLEMENTARY PARABLE OF THE MINAS AND THE KING'S RECKONING WITH HIS SERVANTS AND HIS REBELLIOUS CITIZENS

CHAPTER VIII. THE FOURTH DAY IN PASSION-WEEK - JESUS IN HIS LAST SABBATIC REST BEFORE HIS AGONY, AND THE SANHEDRISTS IN THEIR UNREST - THE BETRAYAL - JUDAS: HIS CHARACTER, APOSTASY, AND END.

CHAPTER IX. THE FIFTH DAY IN PASSION-WEEK - 'MAKE READY THE PASSOVER!'

CHAPTER X. THE PASCHAL SUPPER - THE INSTITUTION OF THE LORD'S SUPPER.

CHAPTER XI. THE LAST DISCOURSES OF CHRIST - THE PRAYER OF CONSECRATION.[5716]

CHAPTER XII. GETHSEMANE

CHAPTER XIII. THURSDAY NIGHT - BEFORE ANNAS AND CAIAPHAS - PETER AND JESUS.

CHAPTER XIV. THE MORNING OF GOOD FRIDAY.

CHAPTER XV.  'CRUCIFIED, DEAD, AND BURIED.'

CHAPTER XVI. ON THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST FROM THE DEAD.

CHAPTER XVII. 'ON THE THIRD DAY HE ROSE AGAIN FROM THE DEAD; HE ASCENDED INTO HEAVEN'


APPENDICES

APPENDIX I. Pseudepigraphic Writings

APPENDIX II. Philo of  Alexandria and Rabbinic Theology

APPENDIX III. Rabbinic Views as to the Lawfulness of Images, Pictorial Representations on Coins, etc.

APPENDIX IV. An Abstract of Jewish History from the Reign of Alexander the Great to the Accession of Herod

APPENDIX V. Rabbinic Theology and Literature

APPENDIX VI. List of the Maccabees, of the Family of Herod, of the High-Priests, the Roman Procurators of JudŠa, and Roman Govenors of Syria

APPENDIX VII. On the Date of the Nativity of our Lord

APPENDIX VIII. Rabbinic Traditions about Elijah, the Forerunner of the Messiah

APPENDIX IX. List of Old Testament Passages Messianically Applied in Ancient Rabbinic Writings

APPENDIX X. On the Supposed Temple-Synagogue

APPENDIX XI. On the Prophecy, Is. XL. 3

APPENDIX XII. The Baptism of Proselytes

APPENDIX XIV. The Law in Messianic Times

APPENDIX XV. The Location of Sychar, and the Date of our Lord's Visit to Samaria

APPENDIX XVI. On the Jewish Views about 'Demons' and 'The Demonised,' together with some Notes on the Intercourse between Jews and Jewish Christians in the First Centuries

APPENDIX XVII. The Ordinances and Law of the Sabbath as Laid Down in the Mishnah and the Jerusalem Talmud

APPENDIX XVIII. Haggadah about Simeon Kepha (Legent of Simon Peter)

APPENDIX XIX. On Eternal Punishment, According to the Rabbis and the New Testament


INDEX I. Of Subjects

INDEX II. Of Passages from the Four Gospels Referred To in these Volumes

Indexes

Greek Words and Phrases

Index of Pages of the Print Edition