TYPES OF THE MESSIAH, &c.
[ * UNEDITED * ]
[ * But useful * ]
That the things of the Old Testament are of things appertaining to the Messiah, and his kingdom and salvation, made manifestation the Old Testament it4f.
WE find by the Old Testament, that it has ever been God's manner from the beginning of the world, to exhibit and reveal future things by symbolical representations, which were no other than types of the future things revealed. Thus when future things were made known in visions, the things that were seen were not the future things themselves, but some other things that were made use of as shadows , symbols, or types of the th in
!~.u Thus the bowing of the sheaves of Joseph's breth en d the sun, moon, and stars doing obeisance to hicn, and Pharaoh's Fat and lean kine, and Nebuchadnezzar's image, and Daniel's four beasts, &c. were figures or types of the future things represented by them. And not only were types and figures made use of to represent future things when they were revealed by visions and dreams, but also when they were revealed by the word of the Lord coming by the mouth of the prophets (as it is expressed). The prophecies that the prophets uttered concerning future things, were generally wb similitudes, figures, and symbolical representations. ence prophecies of old were called parabks; as Balaam's prophecies, and especially the -phecies of the things of the Messiah's kingdom. q7he prophecies are given forth in allegories, and the things foretold spoken of, not under the proper names of the things themselves, but under the names of other things that are made use of in the prophecy as symbols or types of the things foretold. And it was the manner in those ancient times, to deliver divine instructions in general in symbols and emblems, and in their speeches and dis-courses to make use of types, and figures, and enigmatical speeches, into which holy men were led by the Spirit of God. This manner of delivering wisdom was originally divine, as may be argued from that of Solomon, Prov. i. 6. 11 To understand a proverb, (or parable,) and the inter-pretation, the words of the wise and their dark sayings ;" and from that of the psalmist, Psal. xlix. 3, 4. 11 My mouth shall speak of wisdom, and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding. I will incline mine ear to a parable. I will open my dark sayings upon the harp." And Psal. lxxviii. 1, 2. 11 Give ear, 0 my people, to my law; incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will
or th i parable, I will utter dark sayings of
ol - By a parable is meant an enigmatical symbolical speech . Ezek. xvii. 2. and xxiii. 3. Hence speeches of divine wisdom in general came to be called parables, as the speeches of Job and his friends. Hence of old the wise men of all nations, who derived their wisdom chiefly by tradition from the wise men of the church of God, who spoke by inspiration, fell into that method. They received instruction that way, and they imitated it. Hence it became so much the custom in the eastern nations to deal so much in enigmatical speeches and dark figures, and to make so much use of symbols and hieroglyphics, to represent divine thin s, or things appertaining to their gods and their religion. It seems to have been in imitation of the prophets and other holy and eminent persons in the church of God, who were inspired, that it became so universally
the custom among all ancient nations, for their priests,
prophets, and wise men to utter their auguries, and to
deliver their knowledge and wisdom in their writings and
speeches, in allegories and enigmas, and under symbolical
re=aotioris. Every thing that the wise said must be
in alegory, and veiled with types: as it was also
the mariner of the heathen oracles, to utter themselves
under the like representations.
We find that it was God's manner throughout the ages of the Old Testament, to typify future things, not only as lie signified them by symbolical and typical representations in those visions and prophecies in which they were reveal-ed, but also as he made use of those things that had an actual existence, to typify them, either by events that he brought to pass by his special frovidence to that end, or by things that be appointed aw commanded to be done for that end.
We find future things typified by what God did himself,
by things that lie brought to pass by his special provi-
dence. Thus the future struggling of the two nations of
the Israelites Rnd Edomites was typified by Jacob's and
Esau's struggling together in the womb. Gen. xxv. 22,
23. 11 And the children struggled together within her, and
she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And site went to
inquire of the Lord ; and the Lord said unto her, Two
nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall
be separated from thy bowels. And the one people sliall
be stronger than the other people, and the elder shall serve
the younger." And the prevalence of Jacob over Esau,
and his supplanting I;im, so as to get away his birthright
and blessing, and his posterity's prevailing over the Edom-
ites, was typified by Jacob's-hand taking hold on Esau's
heel in the birth. Gen. xxv. 26. 11 And after that came
his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel;
and his name was called Jacob," or, supplanter. Chap.
xxvii. 36. 11 Is he not rightly named Jacob? for he hath
su~planted me these two times. He took away my birth-
' tt, and behold now he hath taken away my blessing."
mlsea xii. 3, 6. 11 He took his brother by the' heel in the
womb-Therefore, turn thou to thy God," &c. And as
the Israelites overcoming and supplanting their enemies
in their struggling or wrestling with them, was typified
by Jacob's taking hold on Esau's heel, so Jacob~s ~nd his
seed's prevailing with God, in their spiritual wrestling
with him, was typified by his wrestling with God and
prevailing. Gen. xxxii. 28. 11 Thy name shall be called
no more Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince thou hast
power with God and with men, and hast prevailed." Hos.
xii. 4. 11 Yea, he had power over the angel, and prevailed :
he and made supplication unto him. He found him
in =1, and there be spake with us, even the Lord God
of hosts, the Lord is his memorial. Therefore, turn thou
to thy God : keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy
God continually. ' The prevalence of the posterity 6f
Pharez over Zarah, who first put forth his hand, was tVpi-
fled by his unexpectedly breaking forth out of the womb
before him. Gen. xxxix. 29. So by Moses's being won-
derfully preserved in the midst of great waters, though but
a little helpless infant, and being drawn out of the water,
seems apparently to be typified the preservation and deli-
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
mire, w ere there is no standing; I am come into deep waters, where the floods overflow me;" with verse 14. "Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink; let me be delivered from them that hate me, and out of the deep waters." That the king of Israel smote three times upon the ground with his arrows, was ordered in providence to be a type of his beating the Syrians three times. 2 Kings xiii. i8, 19. The potter's working a work upon the wheels, and the vessel's being marred in the hand of the potter, so that be made It a . n another vessel, as seemed good to him to make it, at Te itime when Jeremiah went down to the potter's house, was ordered in provi-dence to be a type'of God's dealing with the Jews. Jer. xviii.
The twelve fountains of water and the threescore and ten palm-trees, that were in Elim, Exod. xv. 27. were manifestly types of the twelve patriarchs, the fathers of the tribes, and of the threescore and ten elders of the congre-gation. The paternity of a family, tribe, or nation, in the language of the Ola Testameni, is called a fountain. Dent. xxxiii. 28. 11 Israel shall dwell in safety alone; the fountain of Jacob shall be upon a land of co ' and wine."
rn Psal.:Ixviii. 26. 11 Bless the Lord from the fountain of Israel." Isa. x1viii. 1. cc If ear ve this, 0 house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters 'of Judah." And the church of God is often represented in Scripture by a palm-tree or trees. Psal. xcii. 12. Cant. vii. 7, 8. And there were the elders or representatives of the church to palm-trees. God's people often are compare Isa. Ixi. 3. and Ix. 21. and elsewhere.
We find that God was often pleased to bring to pass ex-traordinary and miraculous appearances and events, to C
wl that relation, from one to the other; as is manifest from the account given of it, Gen. ii. 21-24. 11 And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh instead thereof; and the rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made lie a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh." And when God spake to Moses frorii the burning bush, concerning the great affliction and op-pression of the children of Israel in Egypt, and promised to preserve and deliver them, what appeared in the bush, viz. its burning with fire, and yet not being consumed, was evidently intended as a type of the same thing that God then spake to Moses aboui, viz. the church of Israel being in the fire of affliction in Egypt, and appearing in the ut-most danger of being utterly' consumed there, and Yet being marvellously preserved and delivered. Such a low and weak state as the people were in in Egypt, and such an inability for self-defence, we find in the Old Testament representea by a bush or low tree, and a root out of a dry ground, as was that bush in Horeb, which signifies a dry place. Isa. Iiii. 2. Ezek. xvii. 22-24. Affliction ana dan er in the language of the Old Testament, are called .~,re~ Zech. xiii. 9. 11 will bring the third part through thefire." Isa. x1viii. 10. 19 1 have chosen thee in the fur-
naceof affliction." And God's marvellously preserving his ple, when in great affliction and danger, is repre-sentTb their beilrig preserved in the fire from being burnt. U x1iii. 2. 11 When thou passest through the waters I will be with thee-when thou walkest through the fire thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the flame kindle. upon thee." And God's delivering the people of Israel from affliction, and from the destruction of which they were in danger, through bondage and oppression under the hand of their enemies, is represented by their being de-livered out of the fire. Zech. iii. 2. Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire ? Yea, that very thing of the deliver-ance of Israel out of Egy t, is often represented as their being delivered out of the'Xe. Psal. lxvi. 12. "We went through fire and through ~7ater, but thou broughtest its in-to a wealthy place." Deut. iv. 20. 11 The Lord hath taken you and brought you out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt." So I Kings viii. 51. and Jer. xi. 4.
So Moses's rod's swallowing up the magicians' rods, Exod. vii. 12. is evidently given of God as a sign and type of the superiority of God s power above the power of their gods, and that his power should prevail and swallow up theirs. For that rod was a token of God's power, as a prince's rod or sceptre was a token of his power. Thus we read of the rod of the Messiah's strength, Psalm cx. So the turning of the water of the river of Egypt into blood, first by Moses's takint and pouring it oui on the dry land, and its becoming lood on the dry land, and afterwards by the river itself, and all the other waters of Egypt, being turned to blood, in the first plague on Egypt, was evidently a foreboding sign and type of what God threatened af the same time, viz. that if they would not let the people go, God would slay their first-born, and of his afterward destroying Pharaoh and all the prime of Eg t in the Red sea. (See Exod. iv. 9. and chap. vii.) GUIS making a great destruction of the lives of a people is, in the language of the Old Testament, a giving them blood to drink. Isa. xlix. 26. 11 And I will feed them that op-press thee with their own flesh, and they shall be drunken with their own blood." Aaron's rod budding, blossoming, and bearing fruit, is given as a type of God's owning and blessing his ministry, and crowning it with success. His rod was the rod of an almond-tree, Num. xvii. 8. which God makes use of in Jer. i. 1 t, 12. as a token and type of his word, that speedily takes effect, as Moses's rod of an almond-tree speedily brought forth fruit.
God caused the corn in the land of Judah to spring again,after it had been cut off with the sickle,and to bring forth another croT from the roots that seemed to be dead, and so, once an again, to be a sign and type that the remnant that was escaped of the house of Jtdab should again take root downward, and bear fruit upward, and that his church should revive again, as it were out of its own ashes, and flourish like a plant, after it has been seemingly destroyed and past recovery : as 2 Kings xix. 29, 30. and Isa. xxxvii. 30, 31.
God wrought the miracle of causing the shadow in the dial of Abaz to go backward, contrary to the course of na-ture, to be a sign and type of king Hezekiah's being in a miraculous nizzZurter, an contrary to the course of nature, healed of his sickness, that was in itself mortal, and brought back from the grave whither he was descending, and the sun of the day of his life being made to return back again, when according to the course of nature it was just a sqting. 2 Kings xx.
The miraculous uniting of the two sticks, that had the names of Judah and Joseph written upon them, so that they became one stick in the prophet's hand, was to typify the future entire union of Judah and Israel.
Also God miraculousl caused a gourd to come up in a night, over the head oFJonah, and to perish in a night, to typify the life of man. That gourd was a feeble, tender, dependent, frail vine. It came up suddenly, and was very green and flourishing, and was pleasant and refreshing, and it made a fine show for one day, and then withered and dried up. Jonah iv. 6, &c.
God reproved Jonah for his so little regarding the lives of the inhabitants of Nineveh, by the type of the gourd, which was manifestly intended as a type of the life ot man ; or of man vviih respect to his life, being exactly
agreeable to die representations frequently made of man, and hispresent, frail life, in other parts of the Old Testa-ment. This gourd was a vine, a feeble, dependent plant, that could not stand alone. This God therefore makes use of to re W:ent man, in Ezek. xv. This gourd was a very tender, I plant. It sprang up suddenly, and was veri short-lived. Its life was but one day; as the life of man is often compared to a day. It was green and.flourishing, and made a fine show one day, and was withered and dried up the next. It came up in a night and perished in a ni&ht; appeared flourishing in the morning, and the next everting was smitten, exactly agreeable to the representa-tion made of man's life in Psalm xc. 6. " In the morning it flourisheth and groweth up; in the evening it is cut down and withereth." The worm that smote the gourd,
Zresents the cause of man's death. The gourd was kill-pby a worm, a little thing; as man is elsewhere said to be crushed before the moth. It was that, the a
,sproach of which was not discerned; it came under groun : as else-where man is represented as not knowing the time of his death, as the fishes are taken in an evil net, &c. And as being smitten by an arrow that flies unseen. That this gourd was intended by God as an emblem of man's life, is evident from what God himself says of it, and the appli-cation he makes of it. God himself compares the lives of the inhabitants of Nineveh with this gourd, verse 10, 11. Jonah had pity on the gourd, i. e. on himself for the loss of it; for it was very pleasing and refreshing to him, while it lasted, and defended him orn scorching heat. So life is sweet. The Ninevites by its preservation were held back from the wrath of God, that had been threatened for their sins. How much more therefore should Jonah have had
on the numerous inhabitants of Nineveh, when God 9119 threatened them with the loss of life, which was an enjoy ment so much more desirable than the gourd was to him I And if he found fault with God, that he did not spare to him the shadow of the gourd; how unreasonable was he in also finding fault with God that he did spare the Ninevites their precious lives ?
God miraculously enabled David to kill the lion and the bear, and to deliver the lamb out of their mouth, plainly and evidently to be a type, sign, and encouragement unto him, that he would eniSle him to destroy the enemies of his people, that were much stronger than they, and deliver his peo le from them. David did this as a Aepherd over the t1ocZ of his father; and his acting the part of a shep~ herd toward them, is expressly spoken of as a resemblance of his the part of a ing and shepherd towards God's ~.tip%e from time to time. I Chron. xi. 2. Psalm lxxviii . 70, 71, 72. Jerem. xxiii. 4, 5, 6. Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24. Chap. xxxvii. 24. And God's people in places innumerable are called his flock, and his sheep, and their enemies, it) David's Psalms and elsewhere, are compared to the lion and other beasts of prey that devour the shee
and David himself calls his own deliverance, and the L liverance of God's people, a being saved from the lion's mouth. Psalm vii. 1, 2. and xvii. 12, 13. and xxii. 20, 21. and xxxv. 17. and lvii. 3, 4. And David himself thus understood and improved God's thus miraculously enabling him to conquer these wild beasts, and deliver the lamb, as a representation and sign of what God would enable him to do for his people against their strong ene-mies; as is evident from what he said to Saul, when be offered to go against Goliath.
The accidental rending of Samuel's mantle, I Sam. xv. 27, 28. signified the rending of the kingdom from Saul. It was a common thing for God to order and appoint things to be done by men, in order to typify future events ; so Samuel poured out water in Mizpen, 1 Sam. vii. 6. to sig-nify their repentance. See Pool's Synopsis. Ahijah's rending Jeroboam's garment in twelve s, and giviru, him ten, was to testify the rending the ~iin_gdecim of Israel', and giving him ten tribes. I Kings xi. 30, &c. So see I Ki~gs xx. 35, &c. and 2 Kings xiii. 14-20. The pro-pl~e, . assisting the king of Israel, in shooting an arrow eastward, towards Syria, was appointed of Go to signify that he would assist the king of Israel in fighting with th'e S.yrians. 2 Kings xiii. 15, &c. The prophet Isaiah by God's appointment went naked and barefoot, to typify th'e E.gyptians and Ethiopians going naked and barefoot in
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
their captivity. Isaiah xx. Jeremiah by God's appoint-
ment typified the captivity of the Jews into Babylon, with
many of its circumstances, by taking a linen girdle and
putting it on his loins, and hiding it in a hole in a rock by
the river Euphrates, and returning again to take it from
thence. Jer. xiii. He was commanclM to typify the de-
struction of the people by breaking a potter's vessel. Chap.
xix. By taking a wine cup and offering it to many nations
agreeably to God's appointment and direction, he typified
God's causing them as it were to drink the cup of his fury.
Chap. xxv. And he was commanded to make bonds and
yokes, and put them upon his neck and send them to the
neighbouring kings, to typify the yoke of bondage under
Nebuchadnezzar that God was about to bring upon them.
Chap. xxvii. Nehemiah shook his lap, Neb. v. 13. to sig-
nify the shaking of every man from his house who should
not perform the oath which theY bad taken. Ezekiel very
often.typified future events, by things that he did by God's
appointment; as by his eating t e roll, &c. Ezek. iii.
And by lying on his side, and many other things that he
was to do, that we have an account of, Ezek. iv. And bY
shaving his head and beard, and burning part of the hair
in the fire, &c. chap. v. and b * v making a chain, ebap. vii.
23.; and by his removing, with the many circumstances
that God directed him to, chap. xii. 1, &c. ; and by his
eating 'is bread with trembling, verse 18. ; by filling a pot
with the choice pieces of flesh on the fire, &c.; and by his
not mourning for his wife, cbap. xxiv. The prophet Hosea
typified the things he prophesied of, by taking a wife of
whoredoms, Hos. i. and by marrying an adulteress, with the
circumstances of it, chap. iii. The prophet Zechariah was
commanded to typify the things he predicted, by making
silver andtteolden crowns on the heads of those that return-
ed from captivity, Zech. vi. ; and by the two staves
called Beauty and Bands; and by his casting money to the
potter in the house of the Lord ; and his taking the instru-
ments of a foolish shepherd. Chap. xi.
It was so common a thing for the prophets to typify things that were the subjects of their prophecies by divine ap-pointment, that the fialse prophets imitated them in it, and were wont to feign directions from God to typify the sub-jects of their false prophecies. See I Kings xxii. 11. and Jer. xxviii. 10. Things in common use among the Israelites were spoken of by the Spirit of God as types. Thus the vine-tree is spoken of as a type of man, especially of God's visible people. Ezek. xv.
It being so much God's manner from the beginning of the world, to represent divine things by types, hence it pro-bably came to pass, that typical representations were look-ed upon by the ancient nations, the Egyptians in particu-. ayp
lar, as sacred things, and therefore called hie?o I hies, which signifies sacred images orrrpresentations. nd ani-mals being very much made use of in the ancient types of the church of God, so theY were very much used in the F ptian hieroglyphics, which probably led the way to
tr vv.~ .
Now since it was, as has been observed, God's manner of old, in the times of the Old Testament, from generation to generation, and even from the beginning of the world to the end of the Old-Testament history, to represent divine things b , v outward signs, types, and symbolical representa-tions, and especially thus to typify and prefigure future events, that lie revealed by his Spirit, and foretold by the prophets ; it is very unlikely, that the Messiah, and things appertaining to his kingdom and salvation, should not be thus abundantly prefigured and typified under the Old Testament, if the fbIlowing things be considered.
It is apparent from the Old Testament that these things are the main subject of the prophecies of the Old Testa-ment, the subject about which the spirit of prophecy was chiefly conversant from the beginning of the world. 1twas the subject of the first proper prophecy that ever was uttered: and it is abundantly evident from the Old Testament, that it is every way the chief of all prophetical events. 'Tis spoken of abundantly as the greatest and most glorious event, beyond all that eye had seen, ear beard, or had en-tered into the heart o man; at the accomplishment of which not only 6od's people and all nations should un-speakably'retice, but the trees of the field, the hills and mountains t e sea and dry land, and all heaven and earth,
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
should rejoice and shout for joy ; and in comparison of which the greatest events of th~ Old Testament, and parti-cularly those two most insisted on, the creation of the world and the redemption out of Egypt, were not worthy to be mentioned or to come into mind, and in comparison of which the greatest arid most sacred things of the Mosaic dispensation, even the ark itself, the most sacred of all, was not worthy of notice. And it is also abundantly evident from the Old Testament, that it was the grand event that, above all other future events, was the object of tire contem-plations, hopes, and raised expectations of God's people, from the beginning of the world.
And furthermore, the introducing of the Messiah and his
kingdom and salvation, is plainly spoken of in the Old
Testament, as the great event which was the substance,
main drift, and end of all the prophecies of the Old Tesla-
ment, to reveal which cbiefly it was, that the spirit of pro-
phec * v was given, in that the angel, in Dan. ix. 24. speaks
of tills event, as that in the accomplishment of which pro-
phecies in general are summed up, and have their ultimate
confirmation, in which the vision and prophecy, or all pro-
phetical revelation, has its last result and consummation.
11 Sevent ' v weeks are determined upon thy people and upon
thy holy city ; to finish the transgression, and to make an
et;d of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to
bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up ihe vision
and prophec ' y, and to anoint the most holy." That what
has been expressed is the import of the phrase of sealing
up the vision and prophec.v, is evident from the drift and
manner of expression of the whole verse, and also from
Ezek. xxviii. 12. 11 Thou sealest up the slim, full of wis-
dom and perfect in beauty." Mr. Basnage, in his history
of the Jews, observes, that the rabbies among the Jews
still agree to this day, that all the oracles of the prophets
relate to the Messiah. Page 371. Col. 1.
And besides, it is to be considered, that this event was that in which the people of God, from the beginning of the world, were most nearly and greatly concerned : yea, was of infinitely the greatest concern to them of all pro'phetical events; for 'tis evident from the Old Testament, that the Messiah was not only to be the Saviour of God's people, that sbould be after his coming; but that he was the Saviour of the saints in all ages from the be-ginniny of the world, and that through his coming, and what te should do at his appearing, they all should have the only true atonement for their sins, and restoration from the curse brought upon them by the fall of Adam, the resurrection from the dead, and eternal life.
serrael, many, things which God ordered and appointed
among them, should be typical of things appertaining to the
Messiah ; because it is evident from the Old Testament,
that the very being of that people as God's people, and
their being distinguished and separated from the rest of
the world, was to prepare the way for the introduction of
that great blessing into the world of mankind, of the Mes-
siah and his kingdom. It seems to be pretty plainly inti-
mated by God, at the first planting of the tree, or foi.;nding
that ancient church, and separating that people from the
rest of the world, in the call of Abraham, in the three first
verses of Gen. xii. 11 Now the Lord had said unto Abra-
ham, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred,
arid from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show
thee ; ai)d f will make of thee a great nation ; and I will
bless thee, and make thV name great; and thou shalt be a
blessing; and I will bless them that bless thee, and curse
him that curseth thee ; and in thee shall all families of the
earth be blessed." It here seems to be manifest, that the
introducing that great good, which God had in view, to all
the families of the earth, was what God had in view, in
thus calling and separating Abraham, to make of him a
happy nation. it is therefore much the more likely, that
many things belonging to them should be typical 'of the
greai future thin-gs appertaining to this great blessing,
which was the great end God designed by them: and
especially considering that we find it to be 6od's manner
under the Old Testament, in both persons and things, to
signif - v and represent beforehand, that which God made or
separated them for, or the special use or design God had
in view with respect to them. It was God's manner be-
forehand to signify and represent these things, in what
a=ed tto them, or happened concerning them. So he
in he signification of the names that he gave them,
as in the names of Eve, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Israel,
Judah, Joshua, David, Solomon, &c -and in things
which they saw or did, or which came to pass concerning
them ; as ~Moses's being drawn out of the water, and what
God showed him in Horeb, before he went into Egypt
from Midian, in the burning bush; and in David, m1his
slaying the lion and bear and delivering the lamb.
Again we find that many lesser redemptions, deliver-
ances, and victories of God's'people, which it is plain even
from the Old Testament, were as nothing in comparison
with the salvation and victory of the Messiah, were by
God's ordering represented by t ' ypes ; as the redemptioil
out of Egypt. This was much typified afterwards in in-
stitutions that God appointed in commemoration of it.
And the reason given by God for his thus tisif ying of it,
was that it was so worthy to have signs an' representa-
tions to fix it in the mind. Thus concerning the repre-
sentations of their coming out of Egy in the passover,
by eating it with unleavened bread, witEttheir staff in their
hand, &c. this reason is given -A by they should have such
representations and memorials of it. Exod. xiii. 42. It is
a night much to be remembered. This redemption out of
Egypt was also much typified beforehand. Itwastypified
in ihe smoking furnace'and the burning lamp fbllo~ving it
which Abraham saw. Gen. xv. 17. It was t%pified in
Moses's being drawn out of the water, and in the burning
bush that survived the flames, and by Moses's rod's swal-
lowing up the magicians' rods. David's victor ' v over the
enemies of God's people, and his saving them out of their
hands, was typified by his conquering the lion and the
bear, and res'euing the lamb. God's giving victory to
Israel over the Syrians, and delivering them fi-om them,
was t ' vpified by the prophet's helping the king of Israel
to shoot an arrow towards them. 2 Kings xiii. 15, &c.
The salvation of Jerusalem from Sermacherib's army was
typified by the springing of the corn afresh from the roots
of the stubble. liezekiah's being saved from death was
typified by bringing back the sun, when it was going down.
Since, therefore, God did so much to typify those lesser
victories and salvations, is it not exceedingly likely that
great victory and redemption of the Messiah, which ap-
pears by the Old Testament to be infinitely greater, and
that was all along so much more insisted on, in the word
of the Lord to the people, should be much more typi-
It is much more reasonably and credibly supposed, that
God should through the ages of the Old Testament be
very much in t ' ypifying things pertaining to the Messiah
and his salvation, not only in prophecies, but also in types ;
because we find in fact, that at the very beginning of Ood's
revealing the Messiah to mankind, prophecies and types
went together in the first prophecy of the Messiah, and the
first proper prophecy that ever was in the world, God fore-
told and typified the redemption both together, when God
said to th~ serpent, Gen. iii. 15. 11 1 will put enmity be-
tween thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her
seed. It shall bruise thy head, and tbou shalt bruise his
heel." This is undoubtedly a prediction of the Messiah's
victor , v over Satan, and his suffering from Satan, and of the
Messiah's people's victory and deliverance through him.
And none can reasonably question but that here is also
some respect had to that enmity there is between mankind
and serpents, and the manner of serpents wounding man-
kind and of men's killing them ; for God is here speaking
concerning a beast of the field that was ranked with the
cattle, as appears by the foregoing verse. And this state
of things with respect to serpents, was plainly ordered and
established in these words. But if we suppose that both
these things were intended in the same words, then un-
doubtedly one is spoken of and ordained as a representa-
tion of the other. If God orders and speaks ofthe bruising
of a serpeDt's head, and thereby signifies the Messiah's
conquering the devil, that is tfie same thing as God's
ordering arid speaking of the bruising of a serpent's head as
a sign, signification, or (which is the same thing) type of
his conquering the devil. And in what is said to the ser-
pent, ver. 14. 11 Thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field: upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life ;" it is evident that God speaks concerning that serpent that was a beast of the field. And yet it is also evident by the Old Testa-merit, that he has respect to something pertaining to the state of the devil, that should be brought to pass by the Messiah; as by Isa. lxv.25. 11 The wolf and the iamb shall feed together; and the lion shall eat straw like the bul-lock, and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain ;11 com ared with Isa. xi. 1-9. together with Isa. xxvii. 1. and Kh. iii. 1, 2, &c. Thus the very first thing that was ordered and established in this world after the fall, was a type of the Messiah, and was ordered as such : which argues that typifying of the Messiah is one principal way of God's foreshowing him. And as types and prophe~ies of the Messiah began together, so ihere is reason to think that they have kept pace one with another ever since.
it is more credible, that not only some particular events that came to pass amon the Jews, or things appointed to be done among them, Mould be typical, but that the state or constitution of the nation, andf their way of living in many things, was typical, because we have an instance-of an appointment of a way of living in a particular family or race, to continue from generation to generation, in the chief and more important things appertaining to the out-ward state and way of life, requiring that which was very diverse from the manner of living of all others, and that which was very self-denying, in order to qify something
itual. Ile instance I mean is that of 't e posterity of 7.inradab, the son of Recbab, who was required by the command of Jonadab, commanding them by the spirit of prophecy to drink no wine, nor build any house, nor sow seed, nor plant vineyard.
It is a great argument, that the ancient state of the na-tion of Israel, and both things that appertained to their religious constitution, and God's providential disposal of them, were typical of the Messiah ; that the Jews them-selves anciently thus understood the matter. The ancient Jewish rabbies (as Mr. Basnage, in his history of the Jews, observes, p. 368.) judged that all things happened to their fathers as types and figures of the Messiah. See also Bp. Kidder's Demn. of the Messiah, part 2. p. 40. and part 1. p. 73 1 74. Ibid. p. 111, 112. Did. 150. and part 2. p. 67,71,77 , 78, and 106.
As to the historical events of the Old Testament, it is an argument that many of them were types of things ap-pertaining to the Messiah's kingdom and salvation, that these things are often in the Old Testament expressly spoken of as re . esented or resembled by those historical
vents. And t ose events are sometimes not only men-
tioned as resemblances, but as si and pledges, of those
g!eat things Of the Messiah. InT.S. xIi . Abraham's great
victory over the kings and nations of the east, is spoken of
as a resemblance of the victory of the Messiah and his
.~e 'e. over eir enemies. Abraham is here called the
O't- I ru-~' ver. 2.; as the Messiah in the same dis-
in the beginning of the next chapter, the Messiah
is called God's servant, that shall bring forth ' judgment to
the Gentiles, and bring forth judgment unto truth, and
set judgment in the earth. God is said, x1i. 2. to call
Abraham to his foot. Chap. x1ii. 6. it is said of the Mes-
siah, 11 1 have called thee to righteousness." Of Abraham
it is 'd ha x1i. 2. "That God gave the nations before
, sal ' C Tust to his sword, and as the driven stubble him as the to his bow: " and this is spoken of for the encouragement of God's people, as a resemblance and pledge of what he would do for them in the days of the Messiah, when fie would cause their enemies before them to be ashamed and confounded, to be as nothing and to perish ; so that they shall seek them, and should not find them, and they that war against them shall be as nothing, and as a thing of nought; and they should thresh the mountains and beat them small, and make the hills as chaff: so that the wind should carry them away, and the whirlwind should scatter them. Verses 11, 12, 15, 16.
The church or spouse of the Messiah is spoken of, in Cant. vi. 13. as being represented by the company of Ma-hanaim, that we have an account of Gen. xxxii. at the be-
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
The redemption out of Egypt is very often in the Old
Testament spoken of as a resemblance of the redemption
by the Messiah. Numb. xxiii. 22, 23. " God brought
them out of Ent, he hath as it were the strength of an
unicorn. Sure y there is no enchantment against Jacob,
neither is there any divination against Israel. According
to this time shall it be said of Jacob and of Israel, What
hath God wrought!" Mic. vii. 15. "According to the
days of thy coming out of the land of Egypt, will I
show unto him marvellous things." Isa. Ixiv. 1, 3, 4.
" Oh that thou wouldest rend the heavens; that thou
wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow
down at thy presence I When thou didst terrible
things that we look not for, the mountains flowed down
at thy presence. For since the begirming of the world,
men have not heard uor perceived by the ear," &c. Isa.
xi. 11. 11 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the
Lord shall set his hand again the second time, to recover
the remnant of his people which shall be left fiorn Assyria,
and from Egypt ;' together with verses 15, 16. This re-
demption out of Egypt, is evidently spoken of as a resem-
blance of the redemption of the Messiah. In Psal. 1xviii. 6.
11 God bringeth out. those that were bound with chains."
Verse 13. 11 Though ye have lien among the pots, yet shall
ye be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her
feathers with yellow gold ; " in which there is an evident
reference to the people's hands being delivered from the
pots in Egypt. Psal. lxxxi. 6. and the context, makes this
evident. And the drift and design of the psalm shows
this to be a promise of the Messiah's redemption. God's
dividing the-Red sea and the Jordan, and leading the peo-
ple through them, are often spokenof as resemblances of
what God shall accomplish for his people in the days of
the Messiah. I-a. xi. 11. 11 And it shall come to pass in
that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second
time to recover the remnant of his people that shall be left
-from Egy ' Ver. 15, 16. "And the Lord shal I ut-
terly destroypt1he tongue of the Egyptian sea, and shake his
ha over ihe river, and shall smite it in the seven streams,
and cause men to go over dry shod. And there shall be
an high way for the remnant of his people, which shall be
left from Assyria, like as it was to Israel, in the day that
he came up out of the land of Egypt." Isa. x1iii. 2, 3.
" When thou passest through the waters, I will be with
thee ; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow, thee
-for I-gave Eg * vpt for thy ransom ; " ver. 16, 17, 18, 19.
11 Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea,
and a path in the mighty waters, which bringeth forth the
chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie
down together, they shall not rise : they are extinct, they
are quenched as tow. Remember not f~rmer things-Be-
hold, I will do a new thiz a xxvii.
a;: Ch - 12 "And it shall come to pass at that hat Te Lord shall beat off from the channel of the river under the stream of Egypt," (or the Lord shall strike off, or smite away, both the chan-nel of the river and the stream of Egypt, and ye shall be gathered one by one, 0 ve children of Is,rael." Chap. li. 10, 11. "Art not thou ii which hath dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed of the Lord to pass over ? Therefore, the redeemed of the Lord shall return and come with singing unto Zion," &c. Ver. 15. 11 But I am the Lord thy G od, that divided the sea," &c. Chap. 1xiii. 11, 12, 13. 11 Then be remembered the days of old, Moses and his people, saving, Where is he that brought them up out of me sea with the shepherd of his flock ? Where is he that put his Holy Spirit within him? That led them by the right hand of Moses, with his glorious arm, dividing the water before them, to make himself an everlasting name? That led them through the deep as a horse in the wilderness?" Psal. 1xviii. 22. 11 1 will bring my peo-ple again from the depths of the sea." Zech. x. 10, 11. 11 1 will brin.g them again also out of the land of E ypt-and he shall pass through the sea with affliction, ani shall smite the waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river sliall dry up, and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, ~nd the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away."
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
sea, is spoken of as a resemblance of the destruction of the enemies of God's people by the Messiah. Isa. x1iii. 16, 17. 11 Thus saith the Lbrd, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty'waters; which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise." And parti-cularly Pharaoh's destruction in the Red sea, is spoken of as a type of the Messiah's bruising the head of the old serpent or dragon. Isa. li. 91 10. "Awake, awake, put on thy strength, 0 arm of the Lord. Art not thou it that hath cut Rahab and wounded the dragon ? Art not thou it which hath dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep, that bath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over? Therefore, the redeemed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing unto Zion," &c. Pharaoh is called leviathan and the dragon in Psalm lxxiv. 13, 14. as the devil is in a like destruction in the Messiah's time, Isa. xxvii. 1. That Pharaoh is intended in those forementioned places by the dragon and leviathan, is very manifest from Ezek. xxix. 3. and xxxii. 2.
Ile joy and songs of the children of Israel at their re-t eliverance from
ken of as a resem-have in the redemp-I And she shall sing there as in the days of her youth; and as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." The Spirit of " seems to have reference to the rn'anner of his leading ~nd guarding the people when they went up out of Egy,
i.nggoing before them to lead them, and behind to keep tt
y t ans from hurting them; and to compare what he
would1do in the Messiah's days thereto. Isa. Iii. 12. 11 For
ye shall not go out with haste, nor go by flight: for the
lord will go before you; the God of Israel will be your
rereward;" the God of Israel, that God that thus led Israel
out of Egypt, when he entered into covenant with them,
and became the God of that people. Here see Pool's
Synopsis on Exod. xii. 14. God's leading the people
tbrou,h the wilderness, is spoken of as a resemblance of
what 'hould be accomplished towards God's people in the
Messiah's times. Isa. 1xiii. 13. 11 That led them through
the deep as a horse in the wilderness." Psalm 1xviii. 8.
11 0 God, when thou wentest before thy people; when
thou didst march through the wilderness;' compared with
the rest of the psalm. Hos. ii. 142 15. 11 1 will allure her,
and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably
to her, and she sball sing as in the days of her youth ; as
in the day when she came up out of the land of' Egypt."
Ezek. xx. 34-37. 11 And I will bring you out from the
people, and gather you out of the countries wherein ye are
scattered, with a mighty hand and with a stretched-out
arm, and with fury poured out " (plainly alluding to God's
manner of redeeming the people out of *Egypti. il And I
will bring You into the wilderness of the p~op e, and there
will I pleaa with you face to face; like as I pleaded with
y~ur fathers in the wilderness of the land. of Egypt, ~o
will I plead with you, saith the Lord God An will
cause you to pass under the rod, and will bring you into
the bond of the covenant." Where we may also observe
that God's speaking with the people face to face, and enter-
ing into covenant with them, and making them his cove-
nant people when he brought them out of Egypt, is spoken
of as a resemblance of God's revealing , Iiiinself to his
people in the days of the Messiah, and bringing them into
a covenant relation to himself by him. God's appearing
with the children of Israel in a pillar of cloud and fire, is
spoken of as a resemblance of what God would do for his
!ople in the days of the Messiah. Isa. iv. 11 And the
10rd will create upon every dwelling-place of mount
Sion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day,
and the shining of a flame of fire by night. For upon A
the glory sball be a defence." The quaking of the earth
and of mount Sinai, at the time of the giving of the law,
ken of as a resemblance of what should be in the
Is 'po h's days. Ps. 1xviii. B. 11 The earth shook-even
Sinai itself wiis moved at the presence of God, the " of
Israel." So the great effect of God's presence on the
mountains,and especially mount Sinai's being all enkindled
by so great and dreadfiil a fire, is plainly spoken of as a
resemblance of what should be in the days of the Messiah. Isa. 1xiv. 1-4. 11 Ob that thou wouldst rend the heavens, that thou wouldst come down, that the mountains might flow down at thy presence, as when the melting fire burn-eth-When tliou didst terrible thinge which we looked not for, thou camest down; the mountains flowed down at thy presence. For since the beginning of the world men have not heard," &c. So the rain that descended on the
Keople, at the time of the thunder and lightning at motmt inai, or at the time of the great hailstones that God sent on the Amorites, Psalm 1xviii. 7, 8, 9. , 0 God, when thou wentest forth before thy people, when thou didst march shook, the heavens 7hou, 0 Lord, didst idst refresh thine in-
ings do abundantly Egypt, and the cir-it, were intended by the great di~'poser of all thin to types of the redemp-tion of God 9 pla le by the Pmess , and of things apper-taining to that. r emption.
It is an argument that the manna God gave the children of Israel was a type of something spiritual, because it is called the com of heaven and angels' food. Ps. lxxviii. 24,25.andPs.ev.40. It could be angels' food no other-wise than as representing something spiritual.
No- by way I would remark, what was before made use of a. !e
argument, that the great redemption by the Messiah was very much typified beforehand, is very greatly strengthened by what has been now observed. I-meaii that argument that lesser redem
ing represented by. types, an particularly that the re-demption of the children of Isme out of Egypt was much typified beforehand. Now if this was so, that God was much in typifying this redemption beforehand, which itself 'was a typ~ of the great redem on by the Messiah; how much more may we suppose ri"s great redemption itself, that is the antitype of that, should be abundantly typified I Will God do much to typify that, which was itself but a shadow of the Messiah s salvation? And shall he not be much more in prefiguring the very substance-even that great redemption by the Messiah, in comparison of which the former is often in the Old Testament represented as worthy of no remembrance or notice ?
G 's bringing his people into Canaan, to a state of rest and happiness there, is spoken of as a resemblance of what God would do for his people through the Messiah. Jer. xxxi. 2. 11 Thus saith the Lord, the people that were left of the sword, found grace in the wilderness, even Israel, when I went to cause him to rest:" compared with the rest of the chapter and the foregoing chapter. Isa. 1xiii. 14. 11 As the beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest. So didst thou lead thy people to make thyself a glorious name:" together with the context. Ps. 1xviii. 10. 11 Thy congrepation hath t
dwelt therein: thou, 0 God, bast lyr~pared o thy good-ness for the poor." Ver. 13. 11 Though ye have lain among the pots, yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove," &c.-together with the context. The manner of God's giving Israel the possession of Canaan, viz. by a glorious con-quest of the kings and nations of the land, is spoken of as a resemblance of the manner in which God would bring his people to rest and glory, by the Messiah, after his ex-altation, Ps. 1xviii. 11, 1~. "The Lord gave the word; great was the company of them thattublished it. Kings of armies did flee apace; and she at tarried at home divided the spoil." Ver. 14. 11 When the Almighty scat-tered kings in it, it was white as snow in Salmon,' taken with ver. 21, 22, 23. 11 But God shall wound the head of his enemies-Ile Lord said, I will bring again from Basban; I will bring my people again from the depths of through the wilderness,-thi earth dropped at the presence of God. I send a plentiful min, where thou d beritance when it was weary 1~7
.' These th confirm, that the redemption out of cumstances and events that attended be iah
the sea: that thy foot may be dipped in the blood of thine enemies, and the tongue of thy dogs in the same." Ver. 30. 11 Rebuke the company of spearmen, the multitude of bulls," &c.-together with the rest of the psalm.
What theAeople of God should be brought to, in the days of the essiah, is spoken of as represented by the children of Israel's slaving Acban in Joshua's time. Hos. ii. 15. 11 And I will Live her her vineyards from thence, and the valley of Achor for a door of hope; and she shall
sing there, as in the days of her youth, as ~ in the day when she came up out of the land of -Egypt."
What came to pass in the time or Joshua's battle with
the five kings of the Amorites, and particularly God's
sending down great hailstones upon them, is spoken of as
a resemblance of what should be in the days of the Mes--
siah. Isa. xxviii. 21. " For the Lord shall rise up in
mount Perazim, and his wrath as in the valley of Gibeon,
that he ma do his work, his strang, wo~k d brin to
pass hit y stmnge act:,, to t, an %:
hold the Lord It Fatron;one,.Iii~h as
tempest of hail, and a destroying storm,--shall cast
down to the earth with the hand." And chap. xxx. 30.
" And the Lord shall cause his glorious voice to be heard,
and shall show the lighting down of his arm, with the in-
dignation of his anger-with tempest and hailstones."
And xxxii. 19. 11 When it shall hail, coming down on the
forest; and the city shall be low in a low place" (or shall
be utterly abased). And Ezek. xxxviii. 29. 11 1 will min
upon him an overflowing min, and great hailstones."
What God did for Israel in the victory of Deborah and Barak over the Canaanites, is spoken of as a resemblance of what God would do for his people against their enemies in the days of the Messiah; Psal. lxxxiii. 9, 10, "Do unto them as unto Sisera, as to Jabin at the brook of Kison which perished at En-dor: they became as dung for the earth." For this psalm is prophetical, and these things have respect to the great things God would do apinst the future enemies of his church. For it does not appear that there was any such confederacy of the nations mentioned against Israel in David's or Asaph's time; and particu-larly it does not look probable, that there was any such enmity of the inhabitants of Tyre against Israel, as here spoken of, ver. 7. And it is very probable, that as this Nsalm is prophetical, so it is prophetical of the Messiah's
ays ; as most of the psalms are. And there is a great agreement between what is here foretold of the destruction of the enemies of the church, and what is foretold of the Messiah's days in many other places. And the last verse,
which , of God's being made known to all mankind as the .Iv true God, and the God of all the earth, further confirms this.
Gideon's victory over the Midianites, is spoken of as a resemblance of what should be accomplished in the Mes-siah's days. Isa. ix. 4. " For thou bast broken the yoke of his burden and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his op-pressor, as in the day of Midian." Psal. lxxxiii. 9. 11 Do unto them as unto the Midianites." Ver. 11. 11 Make their nobles like Oreb and like Zeeb; yea, all their princes as Zeba and Zalmunna." As in the destruction of the Midianites every man's sword was against his brother ; so it is foretold, that it should be with the enemies of God's people ~n the Messiah's times. Ezek. xxxviii. 14. 11 Every man's sword shall be against his brother." flag. ii. 2~. 11 And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen, and I will overthrow the chariots of them that ride in them, and the horses and their riders shall come down every one by the sword of his brother."
God's wonderful appearance for David at Baal-Perazim, to fight for him, against his enemies' Is s oken of as a
resemblance of what should be in he Messil , times. Isa. xxviii.21. 11 For theliord shall rideupas inmount Perazim."
In Zech. ix. 15. 11 The Lord of hosts shall defend them, and shall devour and subdue with sling-stones." There seems a reference to David's subduing Goliath with a sling-stone, as though that were a resemblance of the manner in which the enemies of God's people should be subdued in the times of the Messiah; and this is an ar-gument that David's bruising the head of this giant and grand enemv of God's church, is a type of the Messiah, the Son of David, and who is often called by the name of David in Scripture, bruising the head of Satan.
Testament in the whole series of them, from the beginning
of God's great works for Israel in order to their redem
tion out even to their full possession of t
promised Of Egy tit
land inpt e days of David, and the building of the temple in the days 4 Solomon, were t~pical things, and that under the whole history was hid, in a mystery
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
or pamble, a glorious system of divine truth concerning greater things than these, that a plain, summary rehearsal or narmtion of them is called a parable and dark saying Psal. Ixxviii. 2. It is evident that here by a t meant merely a set discourse of things, ap-divine wisdom, as the word partible is some-but roperly a mystical, enigmatical speech, signifying spiritua and divine things, and figurative and typical representations ; because it is called both a parable and dark sayings.
It is an argument that many of the historical events of the Old Testament are types of the great events apper-taining to the Messiah's coming and kingdom, that the Spirit of God took occasion from the former to speak of the latter. He either takes occasion to speak of and fore-tell the Messiah, and the great events appertaining to his salvation, upon occasion of the coming to pass of these ancient events, or on his speaking of these events, celebrat-Ing or promising them, he takes occasion to speak of these latter and greater events, jofinting what is declared of the one with what he reveals . he other in the same dis-course; which is an argument that one has relation to the other, and is the image of the other. Thus the Spirit of God, when speaking by Balsam, took occasion, when celebrating the wondirfiii work of God in bringing them out of Egypt, to foretell that great salvation that God should work for his twople by ihe Messiah. Num. xxiii. 23. So the Spirit of God in Nathan, when speaking of the glorious reign of Solomon, and his building a house to God's name, and promising these things to David, 2 Sam. vii. takes occasion to foretell and romise the more glorious and everlasting kingdom of the ;essiah; as it is evident that David understood the words of Nathan by what he says in chapter xxiii. and in the book of Psalms; and as t is evident from many things in the prophets, the Spirit of God intended them. From the ark s being carried up nto mount Sion, and the great joy and privileges of Israel consequent thereupon, the Spirit took occasion to :,;k very much of the exaltation Of the Messiah, and th
rious privileges of his people consequent thereupon ; as in 1 Chron. xvi. 7-36. especially from verse 22. So in Psalm 1xviii. which was penned or indited on occasion of the ascension of the ark into mount Sion, as any one may be satisfied by duly considering the matter of the psalm, especially verses 25-29. and by comparing the first and seventh. verses of this psalm with Num. x. 35. and by com ring Many passages in this psalm with many parts
it rog of David, on occasion of the carrying tip the ark, that is recorded in 1 Chron. xvi. Again, on this oc-casion the Spirit of God speaks of the things of the Mes-siah in Psalm cxxxii. which was penned on that occasion, as is very plain from the matter of the psalm, and by comparing verses 8, 9, 10, 11. with 2 Chron. vi. 4 1, 42.
From David's great victories over the Syrians and Edom-tes, the Spirit of God takes occasion to speak much of the victories of the Messiah in Psalms Ix. and cviii. Psalm xxii. which is evidently a remarkable prophecy of the Messiah, was written on occasion of the introducing of Solomon to the throne of Israel, as is evident from the title, together with the first verse of the psalm.
So the Spirit of God does abundantly take occasion to foretell and promise the redemption of the Messiah, and the overthrow of his people's enemies by him ; from these two events, the destruction of Sennacherib7s army, and the deliverance of Jerusalem from him, and likewise the de-struction of Babylon, and the redemption of the Jews from their Babvlonish captivity.
Not only does God take occasion from these historical events to speak of the great events that appertain to the Messiah's coming and salvation; but with regard to several of them, be manifestly speaks of both under one; the same words have respect to both events. One is spoken of under the other, as though one were contained in the other, or as though one were the other ; which can be no other wa v, than by one being the type or representa-tion of the other, in thitt sense wherein Datid said the waters of the well of Bethlehem was the blood of those men that bought it in jeopardy of their lives ; as the beasts Daniel saw are said to 6 kingdoms,stad the horns tobe kings, and as Ezekiel's hair is said to be Jerusalem. Fzek. v. 5.
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
Thus Balaqm prophesied of David who smote the four comers of Moab, and of the Messiah, under one. So it is.most manifest that the peace and glory of Solomon's reign, and that of the reign of the Messiah, are spoken of under one. Psalm lxxii. And that the ascending of the ark into mount Sion, and the ascension of the Messiah, are also spoken of under one in Psalm Nviii.
Some of the historical events of the Old Testament, if
they are not typical, must needs be very impertinend ' v
taken notice of in the history ; as David's sacrificing when
they had gone six paces with the ark ; 2 Sam. vi. 13. It
must be both insignificantly done and impertinently re-
lated in the history, unless there be some signification of
some important thing in it. So the relation of there being
twelve fountainsof water and threescore and ten palm-trees.
The remarkable similitude there is between many of
the events in the Old Testament, both miraculous and
others, and the prophetical descriptions of events relating
to the Messiah ' is an argument that the former were de-
signed resemblances of the latter. God's causing the
light to shine out of darkness, as Moses gives us an ac-
count of it in the history of the creation, has a great simi-
litude with what is foretold to come to pass in the Mes-
siah's times. Isaiah x1ii. 16. 11 1 will make darkness
light before them." Isaiah ix. 2. 11 The people that walk-
ed in darkness have seen a great light. They that dwell
in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the
light shined." Isaiah xxix. 18. 11 The e ' yes of the blind
shall see out of obscurity and out of darkness." So there
is a great resemblance between the account Moses gives
us of a river that ran through the midst of Eden to water
the trees of paradise, and the descriptions which the pro-
Vbets give of what should be in the Messiah's times; as zek. x1vii. 7. 11 Now when I had returned, behold at the bank of the river were very many trees, on the one side and on the other." Ver. 12. 11 And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow all trees for meat, whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be consumed." Isaiah x1i. 18, 19. 11 1 will open rivers in high places, and fountains In the midst of the valleys. I will make the wilderness a pool of wa-ler, and the dry land springs of water. I will plant in the wifderness the cedar, the shittah-tree, and the myrtle and the oil-tree. I will set in the desert the fir-tree and the pine and the box-tree together." Compared with Isaiah Ii. 3. "The Lord will comfort Sion-and he will make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of the Lord." Ezek. xxxvi. 35. "This land that was desolate is become like the garden of Eden;" and Psalm x1vi. 4. "There is a river the streams whereof make glad the city of God;" taken with Num. xxiv. 3, 6. " How goodly are thy tents, 0 Jacob, and thy tabernacles, 0 Israel I As the ;allevs are they spread forth ; as the "ard- 'y the river side; as the trees of lign aloes which
7h rd 61th P4711ted, and as cedar-trees beside the wa-ters ;" and Jer. xxxi . 12. 11 And their soul shall be like a watered garden, and they shall not sorrow any more at all." So between what we are told of the tree of life in Eden, (which being in the midst of the garden, we have reason to think was by the river,) and the representations made of what should be in the Messiah's times, Ezek. x1vii. 9, 12. " Every thing that liveth, which moveth, whitherso-ever the river shall come, shall live. Every thing shall live whither the river cometh. And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow all trees for meat, whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be consumed. It:hall bring forth new fruit according to his months. Th fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine."
The things that we have an account of in Moses's his-tory of the deluge, have a great resemblance of many of the Old-Testament representations of things that shall be brought to pass in the time of the Messiah's kingdom. That destruction of the wicked world by a flood of waters, Is ver agreeable to the Old-Testament representation of 'he ure destruction that shall come on all God's ene-rnies, and particularly in the Messiah's days. The wicked of the old world were destroyed by a dreadful tempest. So it is said concerning the ungodly, Job xxvii. 20, 21. 11 Terrors take hold on him as waters; a tempest stealeth
him away in the night. The east wind carrieth him away, and he departeth ; a storm hurleth him out of his place." Sorrow and misery is very often represented by overwhelm-ing waters, and God's wrath by waves and billows. Ps. x1ii. 7. and lxxxviii. 7. The waters of the flood did not onl
overwhelm the wicked, but came into their bowels. =
wrath on the ungodly is compared to this very thing. Ps.
cix. 18. 11 As he clothed himself with cursing like as with
a garment, so let it come into his bowels like water." In
the time of the flood the waters were poured down out of
heaven like spouts or cataracts of water. God's wrath is
compared unto this, Ps. x1ii. 7. 11 Deep calleth unto deep
at the noise of thy water-spouts." The waters of the de-
luge were what the ungodly of the world could not escape,
or bide themselves from them by resorting to caves in the
ground, or digging deep in the earth, or flying to the tops
of mountains ; so likewise is the matter represented with
respect to God's wrath on the ungodly, in Isaiah xxviii.
17. 11 The waters shall overflow the hiding-place;" and
Amos ix. 1, 2. 11 He that fleeth of them shall not flee
away : be that escapeth of them shall not be delivered.
Though they dig into bell, thence shall mine hand take
them: though they climb up to heaven, thence will I
bring them down: and though they bide themselves in
the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out
thence:" and so in many other places. Particularly is
there a great resemblance between the destruction that
was brought on the wicked world by the flood, and what
is foretold of the wicked in the Messiah's times ; as in
Isaiah xxiv. 18, 19, 20. 11 And it shall come to pass, that
he who fleeth from the noise of the fear, shall fall into a
pit; and be that cometh up out of the midst of the pit,
shall be taken in the snare." (So that there shall be no
escaping, let them flee where the i v will, as it was in the
time of the deluge.) 11 For the windows from on high are
open, and the fbundations of the earth do shake. The
earth is utterly broken down ; the earth is clean dissolved ;
the earth is moved exceedingly-and the transgression
thereof shall be heavy upon it." There is not only a re-
semblance between this representation of the punishment
of the wicked world in the Messiah's days, and the his-
tory of the flood, but here seems to be an evident allusion
to ihe flood, and a designed comparisori of that destruc-
tion of God's enemies, and what was in the time of the
flood, when we are told the windows of heaven were
opened, and the fountains of the great deep were broken
up, &c. So the destruction of God's enemies in the Mes-
siah's times is represented as being by a flood. Dan. ix.
26. 11 And the end thereof shall be with a flood;" and to
a flood occasioned by a mighty rain, Ezek. xxxviii. 22.
11 1 will rain upon him and upon hip bands, and upon the
many people that are with hini, an overflowing rain."
There is also a remarkable agreement between what we
are told in Moses's history of the preservation of those
that were in the ark, and what is often declared in Old-
Testament prophecies conceming the preservation and
salvation of the church by the Messiah. Isa. xxxii. at the
beginning. "A man shalf be a biding-place from the wind,
a covert from the tempest." Isa. iv. 6. 11 And there sball
be a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm, and
from rain." Isa. xxv. 4. "Thou hast been a strength
to the poor, a strength to the needy in distress, a re-
fuge from the storm-when the blast of the terrible
ones is as the storm against the wall." Psal. xIvi. 1, 2,
3. "God is our refuge and strength, we will not fear
though the earth be removed, though the mountains be
carried into the midst of die sea" (as they in a sense were
in the flood. They were in the midst of the sea; the sea
surrounded and overwhelmed them). 11 Though the waters
thereof roar and are troubled ; though the mountains
shake with the swelling thereof." Isa. x1iii. 2. " When
thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee:"
compare these texts with Psalm xxxii. 6. 11 Surely in the
flood of great waters, they shall not come nigh thee," and
Psalm xci. 7. 11 A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten
thousand at thy right hand, but it shall 'not come nigh
thee." We ma i y suppose that there was a resorting and
flocking of animals from all parts of the world, such as
are proper to hot countries, from the south; and such as
dwell in colder climates, from the north. And as there
are many countries that have their peculiar kinds of ani-
mals; so we may suppose there was a resorting from
every quarter. A resorting of beasts and a flocking of
birds, -which is a lively resemblance of what is often fore-
told of the gathering of God's people into his church from
all quarters in the Messiah's days, and coming to him for
salvation when all the ends of the earth should look to
him to be saved. Isaiah Av. 22. When God should
bring the seed of his church from the east, and gather them
from the west, and would say to (be north, Give up, and
to the south, Keep not back. Bring my sons from far, and
my daughters from the ends of the earth. Isa. xIiii. 6, 7.
and many other parallel places. And God would gather
his people from all countries, agreeably to many prophe-
cies, and it shall be said, Who are those that fly as a cloud,
and as doves to their windows? The gatgering of all
kinds of creatures to the ark, clean and unclean, tame and
wild, gentle and rapacious, innocent and venomous; ty-
gers, wolves, bears, lions, leopards, serpents, vi rs, dm-
gons; and the door of the ark standing open to trem, and
their all dwelling there peaceably together under one head,
even Noah, who kindl ' y receivea them and took care of
them, fed and saved them, and to whom they tamely sub-
mitted, is a lively representation of what is often foretold
concerning the Messiah's days, when it is foretold, that not
only the Jews should be saved but unclean Gentile na-
tions, when the gates of God's church should be open to
all Sorts of people, (Isa. Ix. 11. with the context,) when
yroclamation should be made to every one to come freely.
sa. Iv. 1-9. And God would abundantly Pardon the
wicked and unrighteous, ver. 6, 7, 8, 9. and would bring
again even the captivity of Sodom and her daughters.
Ezek. xvi. 53. And those nations should be gathered to
God's church, to be one holy society with Israel, that were
wont to be their most cruel and inveterate enemies ; such
as the Egyptians ; Psal. lxxxvii. 4. and 1xviii. 31. Isa. xix.
18, to the end, and x1v. 14. The Philistines; Psal. Ix. 8.
and lxxxvii. 4. Zech. ix. 6, 7. The Chaldeans; Psal.
lxxxvii. 4. and Assyrians; Isa. xix. 23, 24, 25.; and the
most wild and barbarous nations, Tabor and Hermon, that
were noted haunts of wild beasts; Psal. lxxxvii. 12.
Cant. iv. 8. Psal. x1ii. 6. Hos. v. 1. and the nations of
Arabia and Ethiopia, (in many places see fulfilment of
prophecies of Messiah, § 160.) countries that abounded
with the most rapacious, venomous, and terrible animals.
When it is foretold that the beasts of the field should
honour God, and the dragons and the owls, Isa. x1iii. 19,
20. and when it is foretold, 11 that the wolf shall dwell
with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the
kid, and the calf, and the young lion, and the failing toge-
ther, and a little child shaill lead them; and the COW and
the bear shall feed, and their young ones shall lie down
together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox, an the
sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the
weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den,
and they shall not hurt nor destrov in all God's holy
mountain," Isa. xi. 6-9. and chap. I' xv. 25. events under
the Messiah's kingdom are intended. The ark was a
great while tossed to and fro on the face of the flood, ready
to be overwhelmed ; but at last rested on a high mountain
or rock, and the company in it had enlargement and
liberty, and were brought into a new world. So the church
in th~ Messiah's da ' Vs is long in a state of affliction, tossed
tern pest and not comforted. Isa. liv. 11. But when A is read y to be overwhelmed, God will lead her to the ,.ck that ii higher than she, Psal. Ixi. 2. and she shall be brought out of her affliction into a new world, Isa. 1xv. 17, 18. and shall dwell in God's holy mountain, as is often foretold.
Another historical event, between which and the Old-Testament representations of spiritual thingq, and parti-cular things appertaining to the Messiah's kingdoin, there is a great resemblance in the destruction of Sodom and the Deighbouring cities. There is a great resemblance between this and the future punishment of the wicked in general, as represented in the Old Testament. Fire and brimstone Were poured out from God out of heaven, and rained down on these cities : so the wrath of God is often in the Old Testament compared to fire, and is represented as poured out from heaven on the ungodly, and particularly to be
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
poured out like fire. Nahum i. 6. Isa. xIii. 25. Jer. Aiv.
6. Lam. ii. 4. and iv. 11. Ezek. xxii- 21, 22, 31. So it
is threatened in allusion to the manner of Sodom's de-
struction, Psal. xi. 6. that upon the wicked God would
min snares, fire, and brimstone, and an horrible or burning
tempest, (as it is in the marginj and it is said this should
be the portion of their CUP. That destruction came on
Sodom suddenly and unexpectedly, while the inhabitants
were in the midst of their voluptuousness and wickedness,
and wholly at ease and quiet, in the morning, when the
sun arose pleasantly on the earth, and when the idle and
unclean inhabitants were drowned in sloth, sleep, and
pleasures; which is agreeable to what is often represented
in the Old Testament of the manner of God's bringing
destruction on the wicked. It came on Sodom as a snare.
So it is said in that 1 ith Psal . 11 Snares, fire, and brimstone,
shall God rain," &c. That while the wicked is about to
fill his bell ' v, God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon
him, and rain it Upon him while be is eating, Job xx. 23.
That God hath set them in slippery places, and that they
are cast down to destruction in a moment, and are utterly
consumed with terrors. Psal. lxxiii. 18, 19. That their
destruction fdlls suddenly upon them, as the fishes are
taken in an evil net, (when sporting securely in the water,)
and as birds are caught in the snare (when They are feeding
and pleasing themselves with the bait). Eccl. ix. 12.
Particularly this is represented as the manner of destruc-
tion's coming on them that harden their necks when often
reproved, as the inhabitants of Sodom had been by Lot, as
appears by Gen. xix. 9. Prov. xxix. 1. 11 He that being
often repioved hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly be
destroyed, and that without remedy." There is a special
resemblance between the destruction of Sodom, and the
destruction that is foretold to come on the enemies of God
and the Messiah tinder the Messiah's kingdom, which is
often represented as being by fire. Mal. iii. 1. 11 Who may
abide the day of his coming? And who shall stand when
be appeareth ? For he is like a refiner's fire. A refiner's
fire is a vehement furnace, that burns U p the dross. Chap.
iv. 1. 11 For behold, the day cometh that shall burn as an
oven, and the proud, yea, all that do wickedly, shall be as
stubble; and the day that cometh shall burn them up,
saith the Lord of bosts ; it shall leave them neither root
nor branch." Psal. xxi. 9. 11 Thou shalt make them as a
fiery oven in the day of thine anger. The Lord shall swal-
low them tip in his *wrath, and the fire shall devour them."
Dan. vii. 11. 11 1 beheld till the beast was slain, and his
body destroyed and given to the burning flame." Yea,
thaf destruction is represented as effected by raining down
fire and brimstone upon them. Ezek. xxxviii. 22. 11 And
I will plead against him with pestilence and with blood;
and I will rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon
the many eople that are with him, an overflowing rain
and great Eailstones, fire and brimstone." Isa. xxx. 30.
11 And the Lord shall cause his glorious voice to be heard,
and shall show the lighting down of his arm with the in-
dignation of his anger, and with the flame of devouring
fire, with scattering, and tempest, and hailstones." Ver.
33. 11 For Tophet is ordained of old ; for the king it is
prepared. He hath made it deep and large. The pile
thereof is fire and much wood. The breath of the Lord,
like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it' " Cba xxix.
6. 11 Thou shalt be visited of the Lord of hosts witK'thun-
der, and with earthquake, and great noise, with storm and
tempest, and the flame of devouring fire." The Messiah's
enemies are represented as destro ' yed with everlasting fire;
Isa. xxxiii. 11-14. 11 The people shall be as the burning
of lime; as thorns cut up shall they be burnt in the fire.-
Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who
among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings ?" Isa.
lxvi. 15, 16. 11 For behold, the Lord will come with fire,
and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render vengeance
with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire. For by fire
and b " v his sword will the Lord plead with all flesh, and
the slain of the Lord shal I be many :" with ver. 24. " And
they shall go forth and look upon the carcasses of the men
that have transgressed against me, for their worm shall not
die, neither shall their fire be quench
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
were, everlasting fire, inasmuch as the destruction it
brought upon them was everlasting and irreparable deso-
lation, so that the * V never could be built again, and never
any creature, either man or beast, could live there any
more; which is often particularly remarked in Scripturi.
Isa. xiii. 19, 20.* Jer. xlix. 18. and chap. 1. 39, 40. Isa.
i. 9. The p!ace, land, or lake where Sodom and its
neighbour cities once were, is a place that ever since
abounds with that sulphurous inflammable matter, that is
called bitumen and asphaltum, and in our translation of the
arkable resemblance of what is fore-destruction of God's enemies in the
Isa. xxxiv. &--10. 11 For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance, and the year of recompences for the controversy of- Zion; and the streams thereof shall be turned into itch, (or bitumen or asphaltumJ and the dust thereof into trimstone ; and the land thereof shall become burning tch. It shall not be quenched night nor day. The SmOfe thereof shall go up for ever; from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pas for ever and ever." This destruction came on as the sun was up, and had enlightened the
beams. So it is manifest, from many pro great, destruction of the enemies of the ch
s Oken of, is when God comes and appears gloriously for hpS people, and when the morning of that glorious day of the church's light, Leace, and triumph is come on, and the glory of the Lord s 11 be risen upon the church, and the Sun of righteousness with healing in his wings. Then will the day come that will buri~ as an oven, and the wicked shall be as stubble. Lot's being so wonderfully delivered and saved from the destruction, well represents that great preservation of God's church and people, so often spoken of by the prophets, in that time of God's indiggation and day of his wrath and vengeance on his enemies.
The remarkable similitude there is between very many thiDgs in the history of Joseph, and the Old-Testametit pro, hecies of the Messiah, argue the former to be a type
tKn of e latter. Joseph is said to be the son of Jacob's'old age. Gen. xxxvii. 3. So the Messiah is every where represented in the prophecies, as coming and setting up his kingdom in the latter days. He was Jacob's beloved son. Gen. xxxvii. 3. So the pro~hecies do represent the Mes-siah as the beloved Son of God. They represent him as the Son of God. (See fulfilmeut of the prophecies of the Messiah, 4 15.) They also represent him as one that should be'in a very peculiar and transcendent manner the beloved of God. (See fulfilment of prophecies, &c. § 18.) Joseph was clothed with a beautiful garment. So the pro-phecies represent the Messiah as clothed with beautiful and glorious garments. Zecb. iii. 4, 5 ' "Take awy the filthy garments from him. I will clothe thee with c ge of ra~iment-so they set a fair mitre on his bead , aDd clothed him with garments." Isa. Ixi. 10. 11 He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation. Hp hath covered me with a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her "els." The sheaves of Joseph's brethren in his vision all bow down to his sheaf. So it is prophesied of the Messiah, that God would make him his first-born, higher than the kings ofthe earth. P-al. lxxxix. 27. Kings are said all of them to be the SODS of the Most High; but this king is represented as made the highest by God, and all the rest as being made to bow down unto fiim. Psal. lxxii. 11 - 11 Yea, all things shall fall down before him." Isa. xlix. 7. 11 Kings shall see and arise; princes also shall worship; because oftbe Lord that is faithful, and the Ifoly One of Israel, and he shall choose thee." See also ver. 23. and Psal. xlv. 11 He hath anointed thee with the
oil of gladness above thy fellows." And many other places import the same thin Tie saints are often in the prophecies called the chilgre. of God. And they are represented as the Messiah's brethren. Psal. xxii. 2~. " I will declare thy Dame unto my brethren; in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee." But the Messiah is every where represented as their Lord and King, whom they honour, and submit to, and obey. Yea, it is promised 'hat everY knee should bow to him. Isa. xlv. 23. The
sun, moon, and sum, are represented as makin bei to Joseph. So in the prophecies th
sented as God, whom the Old Testa of
as ruling sun, moon, and stars.
represeni~d as declaring the Messiah's righteousness. (Psal. xcvii. 6. and 1. 6.) And.the heavens, and earth, and sea, and the whole universe, is represented as rejoicing and
worshi in a d ' * the Messiah on occasion of his
. ppli in praising coming an1kingdom. Psal. xcvi. 11-13. Ixix. 34. Isa. xliv. 23. and xlix. 13. And the sun is represented as being ashamed, and the moon confounded, and the stars with-drawing their shining, (as it were veiling their faces as the worshippinjangels do~ before the Messiah, at his comig to reign in e world. Ea. xxiv. 23. Joel iii. 15. And the stars as falling from heaven; Isa. xxxiv. 4. Joseph's father and mother are represented as bowing down to him to the earth. This was never fulfill1eprOperly with res ect to J h If is father, when he t h rn in Egyptp Tid not, tt:tep
w~ have any account, thus bow down to him; and his mother was dead long before; both Rachel and Leah were dead before Jacob went down into Egypt. But the Messiah's ancestors are represented as wo *hl i him.
The Messiah is represented as the Son Of Lp'vZ; but David calls him Lord. Psal. ex. 1. Joseph was hated by his brethren, which is agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the Messiah. Psal. Ixix. 8. 11 1 am become a stranger to my brethren, and an alien unto my mother's children." Joseph was hated by the SODS Of the same father, Jacob. So the prophecies do represent the Messiah as a son of Jacob, one of the seed of Israel, but as hated by the generality of his seed, the Jews. Joseph's brethren sold him for a few pieces of silver; so the prophecies do re sent the Jews as selling the Messiah for a few pieces
silver. Zech. xi. 12, 13. Joseph's brethren went about to murder him; so the proyhecies represent the Messiah as being murdered by the ews. Joseph was the saviour of his brethren and the church of God. He saved their lives. So the Messiah is abundantly represented in the prophecies as the saviour of his brediren ; the saviour of the saints, the church of God, and of the nation of the Jews; and as one that saves them from death. Joseph was the saviour of the world, not Only of the seed of Israel, but the Gentile nations, yea of all nations. For the famine was sore in all lands, even over all the face of the earth, and all countries came into Egypt to JoseTh to buy corn. Gen. x1i. 56,57. And his name Ziphnat -paaneah, in the EFyptian language, signifies the saviour of the world. This is exactly agreeable to the Old-Testament representation of the Messiah. Joseph was first in a state of' great humiliation, and afterwards in a state of exalta-tion. In his state of humiliation he was a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. His disgrace and sugermir
were very great. He suffered all unjustly from the an of men, being innocerlit, and wrongfully condemned. He suffered as being guilty of borrid crimes. And had his place and lot among great criminals; and suffered all with admirable meekness; which is exactly agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah. Joseph was a servant to one of the chief rulers of Egypt, Potiphar, the captain of the guard. So the Messiah is called tfie servant of rulers. Isa. xlix. 7. Joseph was one of the king's prisoners, under the hand of the king's chief officer of justice, the captain of the guard, and, as it were, high sheriff of Egg t. So the Messiah is represented as suffering from the nds of God, who bruised him and put him to grief, and as exe-cuting justice upon him for man's sins, making his soul an offering for sin. Joseph's being cast into the dungeon is a fit representation of what the prophecies do represent of the Messiah's extreme affliction and grief, and his being brought to the grave, (often called the pit in the Old Testament" an remaining some time in the state of death . JoFeth was a prophet. He had divine visions himself, and ad kno7vledge in the visions of God, and could interpret the visions of others. This is agreeable to Old-Testament representations of the Messiah. Ile was a revealer of secrets, as his name Zaphnath-paaneah, si'T ifies in the Hebrew tongue, and revealed those secrets th t none other could reveal, and after the wisdom of all the wise men of Egypt had been tried and proved insuf-ficient. Gen. xh. 8,~9, &c. This is agreeable to what is
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
represented of the Messiah in Isa. x1i. two last verses, and
x1ii. 1. 11 For I beheld, and there was no man even amongst
them, and there was no counsellor, that when I asked of
them, could answer a word. Behold, they are all vanity.
Behold my servant whom I uphold, mine elect in whom my
souldelighteth. I have put my Spirit uponbim; he shall
bring forth jud ment to the Gentiles." Josephiss kenof
as distinguisheN from all in that he was one in wrom the
Spirit of God was. How aFeeable is this to the frequent re-
presentations in the Old 'I estament of the Messiah, as one
that God puts his SEirit upon I Joseph is spoken of as one to
whom none was to e compared for wisdom, and prudence,
and counsel throughthe Spiritof God. Gen. x1i. 38,39. This
is agreeable to what is fbretold of the Messiah, Isa. ix. 6.
11 His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor." Chap.
xi. 2, 3. , The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him; the
spirit of wisdom and understanding ; the spirit of counsel
and might ; the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the
Lord, and shall make him of quick understanding in the
fear of the Lord." Zech. iii. 9. 11 Upon one stone shall be
seven eyes." Isa. Iii. 13. 11 Behold, my servant shall deal
prudently." See also that forementioned, Isa. x1i. and
two last verses, and x1ii. 1. Joseph was exalted for this
his 9. at wisdom; which is agreeable to what is said of
the essiah, Isa. Iii. 13. 11 Behold, my servant shall deal
dently ; he shall be exalted, and extolled, and be very
irguh . agreeably to this, Joseph's exaltation was very
great. lie was exalted by the king of the country, who
we may well suppose in this case represents God, seeing it
is evident by the Old Testament, that kings in their kingl~
authority are the images of God. (Psal. lxxxii. 1, 6)
Pharaofi exalts Joseph over all his house and people. So
the prophecies do often represent God as exalting the
Messiah over his people and his house, or temple, and
over heaven. The king exalted Joseph to be next to him-
self in his kingdom, to ride in the second chariot which
he had. So the prophecies represent the Messiah as the
second in God s kingdom, next to God the Father, and
exalted by him to this dignity. Psal. ex. I Sit thou on
right hand." Psal. lxxxix. 111 will make him my first-
rn, higher than the kings of the earth." Joseph was
exalted over all the nobles and rulers of the land of Egypt,
excepting Pharaoh himself. Psal. cv. 21, 22. Agreeable
to this it is often represented in the prophecies, that all
kings shall be made to bow and submit to the Messiah.
And it is also implied that the angels of heaven, as well
as all nations of the earth, should be subjected to him
by God. Dan. vii. 9, &c. 11 1 beheld till the thrones were
cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit. Thousand
thousands ministered unto him-1 saw one in the night
visions, and beheld one like unto the Son of man come
forth in the clouds of heaven, and come to the Ancient of
days ; and they brought him near before him, and there
was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that
all nations and languages should serve him." Dan. xii. 1.
Michael the great prince-together with chap. x. 13.
'4 Michael, the first of the chief princes," with the context,
that I ea . s of angels as princes. Pharaoh invested
J..,J .ith his own authority and honour as his repre-
sentative and vicegerent. For he took off his own ring
from his hand, and put it OD Joseph's hand. So the pr6~
~ilecies do represent God as investing the Messiah with
s authority and honour, seating him on his own throne,
and causing him to bcar the glory. Zech. vi. 12, 13.
And there are many other propheci~s that imply the same.
Pharaoh arra ed Joseph with change f rament, pure
garments, any ensigns of royalty, agreealo1v to 'what is ore-
told of the Messiah. Zech.'iii. iind Isa. Ixi. 10. Pharaoh
arrayed Joseph in fine linen. Gen. x1i. 42. as the Messiah
is represented as clothed in fine linen, Dan. x. 5.: for it
may, by well considering the chapter, be gathered, that
the person there spoken of is the same with Michael men-
tioned in verses 13 and 21. and chapter xii. 1. Pharaoh,
when he exalted Joseph, committed all his treasures and
stores into Joseph's band, to bestow on others and feed
mankind. Psal.cv.21. He made him lord ofhis house
and ruler of all his substance. And particularly Joseph
received those stores and treasures to bestow on his inju-
rious brethren that had been mortal enemies to him ;
which is agreeable to what is said of the Messiah's exalta-
tion. Psal. 1xviii. 18. 11 Thou hast ascended on high-thou hast received gifts for men, yea, for the rebellious also." When Pharaoh exalted Joseph he gave him his wife. So the Messiah's marriage with his church is repre-sented as following his humiliation and attending his exaltation, in Isa. Iiii. and -liv. Joseph marries the daugh-trX of Potiph , which signifies destroyer of fatness, a word of the sa e signification with some of the names
given in Script to the devil. This Potipherah was
Ignifies iniquity, or soi-row. So the
sent the Messiah as bringing his church
himself from a state of sin and wick-
11 Turn, 0 backsliding children, unto
me, for I am married unto you." Co~npare flos. ii.
throughout; Psal. Av. 10. with Ezek. xvi. 3, &c. 11 Thy
birth and thy nativity is of the land of Canaan ; thy father
was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite.-When I
passed by thee and saw thee polluted in thy blood-be-
hold, thy time was the time of love-and I entered into
covenant with thee, and thou becamest mine." And the
prophecies do every where represent the Messiah as bring-
ing his people into a blessed relation and union with him-
self from a state of sin. Joseph's wife's name was
Asenath, which signifies an unfi)rtunate thing. Agreeably
to this the Messiah is repres~nted as e ousing, after lifs
exaltation, a poor, unhaypy, afflicted, Ssisconsolate crea-
ture. Isa. liv. 4, &c. 11 'ear not, for thou shalt not be
ashamed ; neither be thou confounded, for thou shalt not
be put to shame. For thou shalt forget the shame of thy
... th and shalt not remember the reproach of thy wido%~-
hood 'an), more, for thy Maker is thy husband ; for the
Lord hath called thee as a woman fb~saken and grieved
in spirit, and a wife of youth, when thou wast refused."
Verse 11. 11 0 thou afflicted, tossed with tempest and not
comforted: behold, I will lai thy stones with fair co-
lours," &c. Hos. ii. 9, &c. 11 will return and take awav
my corn-none shall deliver out of my hand-I will
destroy her vines and her fig-trees-I will visit upon her
the days of Baalim-I will bring her into the wilderness
and speak comfortably unto her-and at that da ' v she shall
call me Isbi." Verses 19, 20. 11 And I will betroth thee
unto me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto me," &c.
Isa. 1xii. 44. 11 Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken,
neither shall thy-land be any more termed Desolate, but
thou shalt be called liephzibih, and thy land Beulah; for
the Lord delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married
-and as the bridegroom re.joiceth over the bride, so shall
thy God rejoice over thee."' Joseph's brethren are in
great troubl~ and perplexity, and are brought to reflect on
themselves for their SiDs, and deeply to humble themselves
before him, before Joseph speaki comfortably to them,
and makes known his love and favour to them, and re-
ceives them to the blessings glo is kingdom.
This is agreeable to what the prop ie ften represent
of the Messiah with respect to sinners. Hos. ii. 14, 15.
11 1 will allure her and bring her into the wilderness, and
speak comfortably unto her, and I will give her her vine-
yards from tbence-and she shall sing there." See also
Jer. iii. 12, 13, 21, 22. Chap. xxxi. 18-20. Joseph's
brethren, before they were comforted and made happy by
him, are brought to cry with the greatest humility, and
earnestness, and penitence, for their abuse of Jos~ph, to
him for mercy. Agreeably to the prophecies of the Mes-
siah, Zech. xii. 10, &c. 11 And I wilt pour upon the house
of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit
01 e and supplications, and they shall look upon me
112-mcthey have pierced, and the ' y shall mourn for him,"
&c. Iles. v. 15. 11 1 will go and return to my place, till
they acknowledge their offence and seek mv f~c~ : in their
affliction, they shall seek me eafly." Eiek. xxxvi. 37.
I will yet for this be inquired of by the house of1srael
ure priest of On, which prophecies do repre into espousals with edness. Jer. iii. 14
to do it for them." Jer. xxix. 12-14. 11 Then shall ye call upon ine, and ye shall go and pray unto me, and I will hearken unto you, and ye shall seek me and find me, when ye shall search for me with all your heart. And I will be found of you, saith the Lord, and I will turn away your captivity." When once Joseph's brethren were thoroughly humbled, then his bowels yearned towards them with exceeding great compassion and tenderness of heart, though before lie treated them as if be was very
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
19-21. This is agreeable to what is often spoken of in
the pr becies, as a great benefit God's people shall have
by theogessiah. (See fulfilment of prophecies, 4 79. and
~ 86.) The manner of Joseph's comforting bis'brethren
in the manifestations and fruits of his special and peculiar
love, his bringing them Dear him, making known himself
to them as theirs in a near relation, his treating them with
such great tenderness, his embracing them, his manifesting
so great a concern for their welfare, his putting such
bonour upon them befbre the Egyptians, his entertaining
them with a sumptuous joyful feasit in his house and at his
own table, his clothing them with change of miment, his
bringing them into his own land and there giving them a
goodly inheritance, plentifully providing for them in
Gosh~n, a land of ligbt; all is remarkably agreeable to
descriptions given in the prophecies of the manner of God's
comforting, blessing, exalting, and manifesting his great
favour to his church, after her long-continued sin and sor-
rows, in the days of the Messiah's kingdom' in places too
many to be en' e brethren t this e
c. . .1". , 8,c. whic , _
are like them that dream, G 3 , agree able to what is said of tile church of God, when delivered and comforted by the Messiah. Psalm cxxvi. 1. 11 When the Lord turned again the captivity of Zion, we were like them that dream." There is Joy in Pharaoh's court among his servants and nobles on th~ occasion of Joseph's receiv-in
his brethren. Gen. xlvi. 16. Answering to this in iah xliv. 22, 23. 11 1 have redeemed thee. Sing, 0 ye heavens; for the Lord bath done it." And chap. xlix. 13. " Sing, 0 heaven, and be JoyfuL 0 earth--for the Lord bath comforted his people." And Psalm cxlviii. 4. 11 Praise him, ye heaven of heavens, and ve waters that be above the heavens," with verses 13, 14. 11 Let them praise the name of the Lord : for his name alone is excellent ; his glory is above the earth and heaven. lie also exalteth the hom of his people."
The remarkable agreement between many things in the history of Moses, and the )rophecies of the Messiah, argue the former to be a type ) the latter. Moses was G od's elect. Ps. cyi. 2 3. *" Had not Moses his chosen stood be-fore him." In his being so wonderfully preserved and upheld by God when in 'great danger, preserved in the midst of many waters, when he was cast into the river. Moses was drawn otit of the water when a babe. Compare Ps. Ixi-. and Isa. Iiii. 2. He was preserved in his banish-ment, preserved and delivered from the wrath of tile king of Egypt, when lie from time to time went to him with messages that so much provoked him ; preserved at the Red sea, in the wilderness, and in the midst of that per-verse, invidious congregation, and delivered from the striv-ings of the people. This is agreeable to many things said in the prophecies of the Messiah. Moses was twice de-livered out of great waters, when he was designed by his enemies for death ; once in his being drawn out of the river, and another time in rising out of the Red sea. This is agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah's sufferings
Cc I SpaKe against ill. Therefore my urely have mercy upo perfectly forgivesi all th out, as thotgh t had mbered no more. G
and death, and his rising from them. Misery, and wrath, and sore affliction, are often in Scripture compared to great waters, to waves and billows, and great deeps, and the like; and the Messiah's sufferings in particular, as Ps. Ixix. 1-3, 14, 15. and his deliverance out of those suffer-ings is reVresented as his being delivered out of great waters. I s. Ixix. 14, 15. The region of the dominion of death and destruction is relimsented as being down under the waters. Job xxv. 5, 6. These defiverances of Moses,
The things that are said of the burning bush, do wonder-fully agree with the Old-Testament representations of the Messiah. It was not a high tree, but a bush; as the Messiah is called the low tree; Ezek. xvii. 24. and else-where, the twig and the tender plant. This bush was a root out of a drv ground ; for it was a bush that grew in mount Horeb, 'Which was so called for the remarkable dryness of the place. Ile word signifies dryness ; there was no spring about tile mountain, till Moses ihere fetched water out of the dry rock. It was in a thirsty wilderness, where was wont to'be no rain. Therefore the children of Israel in that wilderness were supplied with water only miractilously. Hos. xiii. 5. 11 1 did know thee in th~e wilderness in the land of great drought." See Deut. viii. 15. That bush was the growth of the earth, as the human nature of Christ in the Old Testament is represented to be. Yet it had the divine nature of Christ in it; for this angel of the Lord that is said to appear in the bush, has been proved to be the same with the Messiah from the Old Testament, in my discourse oil the prophecies of the Messiah. This angel is said to dwell in this bush, Deut. xxxiii. 16. the more to represent the divine nature of the Messiah dwell-ing in the human nature. This bush burnt with fire, a reiablv to what the prophecies speak. of the sufferings of Cbrisi ; great calamity and affliction in the Old Testa-ment are often called fire. Ibis was especially a resem-blance of the wrath of God, that is often called fire in the Old Testament, and which the propliecies represent the Messiah as enduring. (See fulfilment of prophecies, § 70.) The bush was preserved from being CODSUmed, though it burnt with fire, agreeably to the prophecies of the preser-vation and upholding of the Messiah. God's not sufferiDg his Holy One to see corruption, &c. The bush emerge
alive and fresh out of the fire, agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah's resurrection front the dead, and deliver-ance from all his sufferings The angel that dwelt out of that bush, who was the Messiah, comes out of the fire, and appears in the bush, and delivered alive from the flames, to work red~mption for his people. See Exod. iii. 8. So the prophecies represent the Messiah rising from the dead, and exalted out of his state of humiliation, to work salva-tion for his people.
If we consider the remarkable agreement there is be-tween the account Moses gives of the brazen serpent, Num. xxi. and the representation the prophet makes of the Mes-siah, we shall see good reason to think that the former was intended to be a type of the latter. Doubtless God's ap-pointing that way for the heating of those that were bitten with fiery serp6ts, by making an image of those fiery serpents, and putting it on a pole, had some significaticy'. It was not wholly an insignificant appointment. There was doubtless some important thing that God aimed.at in it.. It was not an appointment without any aim or any instruction contained in it, as it seems as though it must be, unless some important spiritual thing was represented and ex-bibited by it. And whoever considers the remarkable agreement between this appointment and its circumstances, and the things spoken concerning the Messiah, will see reason to concluae, that these are doubtless the things sig-nified and pointed forth by it. That sin, misery, and death that the Messiah is represented as coming to save us from, is represented in the Old Testament as being from a ser-pent. See Gen. iii. 1-6. and xv. and xx. The Messiah is represented as saving from all hurt by the most poison-ous serpents . Isa. xi. 8, 9. and 1xv. 25. Sin, our spiritual disease, is in the Old Testament compared to the poison of the serpent. Deut. xxxii. 33. Psal. Iviii. 4. and cxl. 3. The brazen serpent is called a fiery serpent, Num. xxi. B. because it was in the image of the fiery serpents. So the prophets represent the Messiah as set forth as a sinner, ap-
' ng in the form of sinners, and of a great sinner. Isa. Eii. 6. 11 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath made the iniquities of us all to meet in him" (for so it is in the Hebrew . Ver. 9. 11 He made his grave with the wicked." Ver. 12~ it He was numbered with the transgressors, and he bare the sin of many." He was treated as the greatest of sinners. The Messiah being set forth in the form of a great sinner, he was, as it were, exhibited in the form of a very venomous serpent, according to the manner of repre-senting things in the Old Testament, for there great sinners are represented as poisonous serpents. Psal. Iviii. 3, 4.
The wicked are estranged from the womb; their poison
is like the poison of a serpent; they are like the deaf adder
thatstoppeth upherear." Psal. cxl:3.'4 They have sharpened
their tongues like a serpent; adders' poison is under their
lips." In order to the Israelites being saved from death
through the poison of the fiery serpents, the brazesk serpent
was set u to the congregation or army of
Israel. or the translated pole, signifies ensign,
which is the much more proper English of the word.
This is in exact agreeableness to the prophecies of the
Messiah. In. xi. 10. " And in that day there shall be a
root of Jesse, which shall stand for an e
ttsign to the people." Here the word translated ensign, is t e very same with the word translated pok in the 21st of Num. The bmAn serpent was set up as an ensign, that it might be exhibited to public view, and the diseased are called upon to look upon it, or behold it. Thus in the prophecies men are from time to time called upon to behold the Messiah
Isa. xl. 9. " 0 Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee
into the high mountain; 0 Jerusalem, that bringest
tidings, lift up thy voice with strength. Lift it up; be not afraid. Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God." We may well suppose, that when the brazen ierpent was lifted up in the wilderness, there was proclamation made by heralds to that vast congregation, calling upon them to look on that. Isa. 1xv. 1. 41 1 said, Behold me, behold me, to a nation that was not called by name." Chap. 1xii. 10, 11. 11 Lift up a standard for the ppople. Behold, the Lord hath proclaimed to the end of the world, say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation comeib ; behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him." Zech. ix. 9-12. 11 Rejoice greatly, 0 daughter of Zion; shout, 0 dau er of Jerusalem ; behold, thy King cometh unto thee!htHe is just, and having salvation-and he shall peak peace unto ihe heathen-by the blood of the covenant I will send fbrth thy prisonei~-turn ye to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope." Isa. Iii. 7, 8. 11 How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tid-ings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation, that saith unto Zion, rhv God reigneth I Th,~ watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together s all they sing ; for they shall see eye to eget, when the Lord shall bring again Zion." The way t the people were saved by the brazen serpen.t, was by' looking to it, beholding.it, as seeking and expecting salva-tion from it: as an ensign saves an army by the soldiers lookipg on it and keeping it in their view. Agreeably to this, it is said concerning the Messiah, In. xi. 10. 11 There shall be a root of Jesse, -which shall stand for an ensign of the people ; to it shall the Gentiles seek." And In. Av. 22. " Look to me, and be ye saved, all the ends of tile earth." And faith and trust in the Messiah for salvation is often spoken of in the prophecies as the great condition of salvation through him. The Chaldee paraphrasts looked on the brazen ser ent as a type of the Messiah, and gave it the name of the Mau. (Basnage's History of the Jews, page 367.)
The great agreement there is between the history of Joshua and the things said of him in Scripture, and the things said of the Messiah in the Old Testament, strongly argues Joshua to be a type of the Messiah. There is a great agreement between the names by which he is called in Scripture and the names and things attributed to the Messiah in the Old Testament. His first name was Oshea, Num. xiii. 8-16. which signifies Saviour. So the Mes-siah it called by the same name, a Saviour, In. xix. 20. " He shall send them a Saviour and a great one." The word is of the same root with Oshea. So again the Mes-
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
siah is called a Saviour, Isa~ x1iii. 3, 11. Hosea xiii. 4,9, 10. Obad. 2 1. and other placeq. So he is called Salva-tt In. Ixii. 11. 11 Behold, thy salvation cometh; be-hol, his reward is with him, and his work before him." And this name is agreeable to what is abundantly spoken of in the bets, as the great work and office of the Messiah, AONI is to be a Saviour and Redeemer, and to work out the greatest and most eminent salvation for God's people that ever was or will be; that which is therefore often called the Salvalion. This name Oshea was by Moses ch ed into Jehoshua. Num. xiii. 16. 11 And
Lord the Saviour, or Jehovah our Saviour; which makes his name still more agreeable to the name and nature of the Messiah. And it is difficult to assign any other reason why Moses thus changed his name by the direction of the Spirit of God, but that it might be so. This is agreeabl,--to those names by which the Messiah is called in the pro-phets, Immanuel, God with us, and Jehovah our Righte-ousness. So Joshua is called the Shepherd, the stone Qf Israel; Gen. xlix. 24.; agreeably to names by which t6e Messiah is often called in the prophets. Joshua's name being the same with the Messiah's, and agreeable to his office, make it the more probable that it was that he might be a type of the Messiah; because it was frequently God's manner to presignify future things by the signification of names; as is evident in many instances. Joshua was God's elect; he was called to his office and exalted to his high dignity by God's election and special designation, agreeably to what is said of the Messiah in the prophets. He resembled the Messiah in things spoken of him by the
Frophets in many things wherein Moses did so; particu-arly in near access to God in mount Sinai and in the tabernacle. Exod. xxxiii. 11. and xxiv. 13. and xxxii. 17. Joshua was a man in whom was the Spirit in an eminent manner. Num. xxvii. 18. 11 Take thee Joshua, the son of
Nun, a man in whom is the S R eeably to what is
often said of the Messiah i is said of
Joshua that he was full of om, Deut.
xxxiv. 9.; agreeablY to ma e Messiah.
Joshua was both a king an um. xxvii.
18. and Deut. xxxiv. 9. and st chapters.
Herein he is like the Messiah. Joshua wits the captain of
the host of Israel, that fought their battles for them, and
subdued their enemies, though many and mighty. He was
their captain in their war with Amaiek, and, as we may
sup ose, the other enemies of Israel that ibey encountere'-
in Xle wilderness; and he conquered the numerous and
mighty ene)mies in Canaan ; agreeably to what is r resent-
ed of the Messiah every where by the prophets. We came
~p out of the Jordan when it was swelled with a great flood,
into Canaan ; as the Messiah is spoken of by the prophets
as coming tip out of great affliction, terrible sufferings and
death, into heaven, a land of rest and great delight. Great
sufferings are in tbeOldTestament represented by theswell-
ing of the Jordan. Jer. xii. 5. Joshua brought the children
of Israel out of the wilderness and out of Bashati, and out
ofgreat waters, into Canaan,a land ofrest flowing with milk
and honey, agreeably to Psalm 1xviii. 22. 11 The Lord said,
I will bring again from Bashan, I will bring my people
again from the depths of the sea :" and In. xi. 10. " There
shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of
the people, and his rest shall be glorious." Hosea ii. 14, 15.
11 1 will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and
speak comfortably to her: and I will give her her vineyard
from thence, and ihe val~ey of Achor for a door of hope; and
she shall sing there, as in the daYs of her youth, and as in
the dav when she came up out of the land of Egypt:" and
agreeably to many prophecies that represent the salvation
of the Messiah as a Dringing of God's people into a state of
liberty, rest, and ' jo ' v, in Canaan, out of a state of bondage
71rit; agreeab a prophets. ?I
the spirit of wisd ny prophecies of th d a prophet. See N
and eat affliction *in foreign lands, comparing it to God's first tr
naan, which were observed before; and agreeable to many
prophecies which speak of God's people, as delivered from
great misery, and brought into happy circumstances, by the
Messiah, and as therein partaking ~vith the Messiah in his
deliverance from his sufferings, and advancement to a state
of rest and glory. Joshua, in going before the children
of Israel as the captain of the Lord's host, and bringing
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
them into the land of Canaan, did that which is spoken of in the books of Moses and Joshua themselves, as the office of that angel of God's presence, who (as I have shown is evident by the Old Testament) was the same per-son with the Mesiiah, Num. xxiii. 20. 11 Behold, I send an angel before thee, to kee thee in the , and to bring thee into the place which ll have prepaZ" Verse 23.
For mine angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amontes and die Hittites," &c. Chap. xxxiii. 14. 11 My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest." Josh. Y. 14. 11 Nay, but as the captain of the Lord's host am I now come." Joshua was a most glori-ous conqueror, as the Messiah is every where represented to be in the prophecies. Joshua entered Canaan, con-quered his enemies, and brought in his people to their rest and inheritance, by his righteousness or strict obedience to God's commands. Josh. i. 2, &c. 11 Go over this Jordan, thou and all this people, into the land which I do give thee-every place that the sole of your feet shall tread upon, that I have given unto you-from the wilderness, and this Lebanon, unto the great river, the river Euphrates. -There shall not a man be able to stand before thee.-(Into this people sbalt thou divide for an inheritance the land which I sware unto their fathers to give them. 0
be thou strong and very courageous, that th
serve and do according to all the law whic servant commanded thee : turn not from it hand nor to the left, that thou mayest prosp ever tbou goest. This book of tfie law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein : for theu thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and thou shalt have good success." God prc~ mised that he would be with Joshua, and would upbold him, and not fait him, till he bad complete victory over all his enemies, agreeably to what is said of the Messiah, Isaiah xIii. 1-4. 11 Beho'Id MY servant whom I uphold. The smoking flax shall fie not ench - he shall bring
forth judgment unto truth. He s a~l no' fa'
couraged, till he have set judgment in the earth, and the isles wait for his law." Verse 6. 11 1 the Lord have called thee in righteousness: I will hold thine hand: I will keep thee, and I
yve thee for a covenant of the people."
Chap. xlix. 2. le hath made my mouth like a sharp
sword; in the shadow of his hand bath be held me, and
made me as a polished shaft ; in his quiver bath be hid
me." Verses 7, 8. 11 Kings shall see and anise * nuces
also shall worship, because of the Lord that is iait9ful.-
In a day of salvation have I helped thee, and I will pre-
serve tbee and give thee for a covenant of the people."
Psal. lxxxix. 20, &c. 11 1 have found David my servant,
with my holy oil have I anointed him: with whom my
hand shall be established ; mine arm also shall strengthen
him. The enemy shall not exact upon him, nor the son of
wickedness affiic~i him. I will beat down his foes before
his face, and plague them that hate him. But my faithful-
ness and in ' y mercy shall be with him, and in my name
shall his horn be exalted :" and many other places ; and
agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah, God made his
enemies his footstool. Josh. i. 3-5. 11 Every ace that
the sole of your feet shall tread upon," &c. will chap. x.
24. 11 Put your feet upon the necks of those kings,' &c.
Joshua, agreeably to the prophec * y of the Messiah, was an
intercessor for his people. Joshua x. The high walls of
God's enemies came down before Joshua agreeably to the
prophecies of the Messiah. Isa.xxv.12."Andtbe*fortress
of the high fort of thy walls shall he bring down, lay low
and bring to the ground, even to the dust." Chap. xxvi.
5. 41 For he bTingeth down them that dwell on high; the
lofty city he layeth it low, be layeth it low even to the
ground ; be bringeth it even to the dust." Chap. xxx. 25.
them. Only ou mayest ob-b Moses my
to the right er whitherso-
11 In the day of the great slaughter, when the towers fall." Joshuadestroved the giants, Josh. xi. 21.; agreeably to this see Isa. xlv. f4. " The Sabeans, men of stature, sbaill come over to tbee.-In chains shall they come over, and they shall fall down unto thee." Isa. x. 33. 11 And the high ones of stature shall be hewn down, and the haughty shall be humbled." This seems to be connected with the pro-phecy in the beginning of the next chapter, in the next verse but one. God assisted Joshua in battle by destroy-
ing his enemies by great hailstones out of heaven. See, agree~Ie to this, Isa. xxx. 30. and xxxii. 19. Ezek. xxxvui. 22. Joshua conquered among kings. Joshua made Israel to trample their haughtiest and strongest ene-mies under their feet. Josh. x. 24. See, agreeable to this, Isa. xxvi. 7. Chap. xlix. 23. Zech. x. 5. Psal. 1xviii. 23. Mic. vii. 10. Psal. x1vii. 3. Isa. Ix. 14. Psal. Iviii. 10. Joshua did as it were make the sun stand still over Israel. Agreeably to those prophecies of the times of the Messiah's kingdom. Isa. Ix . 20. Zecb. xiv. 6, 7. Joshua hous!hed the horses, and burnt the chariots of the enemies of Cod's people in the fire. Josh. xi. 6, 9. Hag. ii. 22. 11 And I will overthrow the chariots and those that ride in them, and the horses and their riders shall come down." Psal. xlvi. 9. 11 He maketh wars to cease to the end of the earth; he breaketh the bow and cutteth the spear ih sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire." Joshua divided unto Israel their inheritance, -,is one that God had appointed to be,Rdge, what portion belonged to every tribe.
ere is also such an agreement between what is said of Israel's victory over the Canaanites under Deborah, and what is said in the prophecies of the church's victory over her enernies in the Messiah's times, as ~rgues the former to be a type of the latter. The Canaamtes were exceeding strong, and God's people very feeble and defenceless, having no weapons of war, and were mightily oppressed by their enemies. So are things represented between God's peo . le and their enemies, before their glorious vic-tory and liverance under the Messiah, in places too many to he enumerated. This victory was obtained by a female. So the war under the Messiah against God's ene-mies, is spoken of as maintained by the church, and the glorious victory obtained over them by her, who is spoken of almost every where by the prophecies as a woman or female, and is represented sometimes as such in propl~e-cies of her battle and victory over her enemies. Mic. iv. 13. 11 Arise, thresh, 0 daughter of Zion, for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass ; and thou shalt beat in pieces many people." Cant. vi. 13. 11 What will ye see in the Shulamite ? As it were the company of two armies." Cant. i. 9. " I have com-
Ved thee, 0 my love, to a company of horses in baraoh's chariots'." Chap. vi. 4. " Thou art beauti-ful, 0 my love, as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, terrible as an army with banners." Ver. 10. 11 Who is she that looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners?" And Debo-rab's being a prophetess, 'well agrees with the church's being endowed with such abundant measures of the Spirit of God at the time of the church's glorious victory over her enemies, and all her members becoming as it were pro bets agreeably to the prophecies. The assistance given by 3ael, another woman, the wife of Heber the Kenite, a Gentile, who slew Sisera, the captain of the host, and so is said to be blessed among women, well represents the assistance of the Gentile church in the victory over God's enemies in the Messiah's days. Deborah tells Barak-" 'ne Lord is gone out before thee;" which is agreeable to Isa. xIii. 13. 11 The Lord shall go forth as a mighty man. He shall stir up jealousy as a man of war. He shall cry, yea, roar. He snall prevail against his enernies;" and many other places in the prophecies. The work of God in that victory of Israel is spoken of as parallel with those things that are represented in expressions very much like those used in the prophecies to represent what sball come to pass in the time o the church's victory over her enemies under the Messiah ; such as going out of Seir, his marching out of the field of Edom, and the earth trembling, and heaven as itwere dissolving and dropping, and mountains melting. Judges v. 45. See Isa. xxxiv. 4 -6. and xxiv. 18-21. and Ixiii. 1-6. and 1xiv. 1-4. The work of God in this victory is compared to God's great work towards Israel, at the*ir coming out of Egypt, and in the wilderness, just as the glorious victory of the Messiah is in the 68th -Psalm, almost in the same words, (compare Judges v. 4, 5, with Psalm 1xviii. 7, 8.) which is a clear evidence that this victory is a great image of that. For those things that agree in a third thing, agree among themselves. There was a plentiful shower at the time of that victory, that swelled the brook Ki*hon, as is
manifest from Judg. v. 4. and ver. 20, 21. So ',it the time of the great victory of the church over her enemies under the Messiah, there will be an abundant outpouring of the Spirit, which is often re resented in the prophets as a plentiful and very great Tower of rain. And these spiritual showers are in the 68th Psalm compared to the very same showers on Israel that this is. So the effects produced in the time of the Messiah's victories are com-pared to the mountains melting, in Isa. Ixiv. 1-4. as the effect of this victory is, Judg. v. 5. and both compared to the same effects at mount Sinai. Barak, on this occasion, is called upon to I.ead captivity captive, Judg. v. 12. in the ve same expressions that are used concerning the Mes-Z concerning: his triumph over his enemies, Ps. 1xviii. 18. It is a remnant of Israel that is spoken of as having the benefit of this salvation, Judg. v. 13. as it is a remnant that,is often spoken of as having the benefit of the Mes-siah s salvation. Isa. iv. 3. Chap. vii. 3. x. 21, 22. xi. 11 -16. Jer. xxiii. 3. Joel ii. 32. Mic. ii. 12. and iv. 7. and v. 3. vii. 8. and vii. 18. Z9h. iii. 13. Zech. viii. 12. It is said of the remnant of Israel in Deborah's time, Judg. v. 13. "Then he made him that remaineth to have dominion over the nobles among the people: the Lord made me have dominion over the mighty," agreeably tb the honour of the saints in the Messiah's times, spoken of Psal * cxlix. 6, &c. "Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a two-edged sword in their band, to execute vengeance upon the heathen-to bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron, to ex'e-cute upon them the judgment written. This honour have all the saints." And what is said, Isa. Aix. 23. of ings I icking up the dust of the church's feet. The ang Is of heaven are represented as fighting in this battle, Judg. v. 20. as they are in the battle of 6od's people under the Messiah, Psal. 1xviii. "The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels." Cant. vi. 13. "The company ~f two armies," compared with Gen. xxxii. 1, 2. The enemies of Israel in Deborah's battle were swe ~t away with a flood, Judg. v. 21. See Dan. ix. 26. Ez
xxxviii. 22. Isa. xxviii. 17. The church, on occasion of Deborah's victory, triumphs thus : 11 0 my soul, thou hast trodden down strength." This is agreeable to Isa. xxvi. 7. Chap. xlix. 23. Zech. x. S. Ps. 1xviii. 23. Mic. vii. 10. Ps. x1vii. 3. and cx. 1. Isa. Ix. 14. Ps. lviii. 10.
Ile great agreement there also is between the stor ' v of
Gideon's victory over the Midianites, and things spoken
in the prophecies concerning the Messiah, is an argument
that the former is typical of the latter. Gideon brought
Israel out of the vn"Idemess, and from the eaves, rocks,
and mountains, where they had bad their abode. Judr.
vi. 2. This agrees with Psal. 1xviii. 22. "The Lord said,
Iwill bring again from Basban! " And lxxxix. 12. "Tabor
and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name." Hos. ii. 14. "1
will bring her into the wilderness and speak comfortably
unto her." Ezek. xx. 35, &c. "I will bring you into the
wilderness of the people, and there will I pl6ad with you
-1 will bring you into the bond of the covenant." Isa.
x1ii. 11. "Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up
their voice-let the inhabitants of the rock sing : let them
shout from the tops of the mountains." Cant. ii. 14. 110
my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock-let me see thy
face." And Jer. xvi. 16. 11 1 will send for many liunter~,
and they shall hunt them from every mountain and from
every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks - " taken with
the two foregoing verses, and ver. 19, 20, and 21, following.
Isa. x1ii. 7. 11 To bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness, out of the prison-house." Ver. 22, &c. "This is a people robbed and spoiled, they are all of them snared in holes, and they are hid in prison-houses ; they are for a prey, and none delivereth ; for a spo~l, and n6ne saith, Restore-lWho gave Jacob for a
I and Israel to the robbers ? He hath poured upon 01 the fury of his anger and the strength of battle.-But now thus saith the Lord that created thee, 0 Jacob, -fear not, for I have redeemed tbee." Compare this with Judg. vi. 2-6. "The children of Israel made them dens which are in the mountains, and eaves and strong holds.-And they destroyed the increase of the earth, and left no sustenance for Israel, neither sheep, nor ox, nor ass--and Israel was greatly impoverished."
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
God, ~greeably to some of these and other prophecies of the Jimes ot the Messiah, first pleaded with Israel concerning their sin, and brought them to cry earnestly to him, before he delivered them by Gideon. Judg. vi. 6-10. God did not send them deliverance till they were brought to extremity. Agreeably to DeUt. xxxii. 36, 37. and many other prophecies.
Ile enemies of Israel, that sought their destruction, that Gideon overcame, were an innumerable multitude, and many nations associated and combined together; agree-ably to many prophecies of the victory and salvation of the Messiah. Gi eon was appointedto the office of a saviour and deliverer of God s pe le b the sovereign 0 od~
election and special designation ?G , agreeably to many prophecies of the Messiah. He was endued with might, and upheld and strengthened immediately from God, and by the Spirit of God and the spirit of might resting upon him. Judg. vi. 14-16, 34. Agreeably to many prophecies of the Messiah.-Gideon was as it were a root out of a dry ground, of a p~or family, and the least in his father's hous'e ; a low tree, without form or comeliness. Judg. vi. 15. Agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah. Gideon was not only the captain of the host of Israel, bu t was immediately al~pointed of God to be a priest to build the attar of God, and to offer sacrifice to God, to make atonement for that iniquity of Israel that had brought that sore judgment upon them, that he came to deliver them from. Judg. vi. 20-28. And he offered a sacrifice ac-ceptable unto God, and of which God gave special testi-mony of his acceptance, by consuming his sacrifice by fire immediately enkindled from heaven. Ver. 21. Ana his sacrifice procured reconciliation and peace for Israel, ver. 24. These things are exactly agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah. Gideon destroyed idols, abolished their worship, threw down their altars, and set up the worship of the true God. At this time that Gideon overthrew the idols and their worship, those idols and their worshi e
were solemn challenged to plead and make go7tte!isr
Y, dg. vi. 31-33. Agreeably to Isa. x1i. 1-7.
and 21-29. Gideon drank of the broA in the way, and
wast so prepared for the battle, and obtained a glorious
conquest over the kings and the heads of many countries,
and filled the place with the dead bodies, agreeabI * v to
Psal. cx. 5-7. "Ile Lord at thy right hand shall strike
through kings in the da I v of his wmth : he shall judge
among the heathen: he shall fill the places with the dead
bodies: be shall wound the heads over many countries :
he shall drink of the brook in the way, therefore shall be
lift up the head." The company with Gideon was a small
remnant, that was left after most of the people departed.
So is the company re resented that shall obtain victory
over their enemies*in Te Messiah's times. Isa. x. 20, &c.
"And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant
of Israel shall stay upon the Lord, the Holy One of Israel,
in truth. For though thy people Israel be as the sand of
the sea; yet a remnant shall return. Therefore thus saith
the Lord, 0 my people, be not afraid of the Assyrian--
For the Lord shall stir up a scourge for him according to
the slaughter of Midian." Mic. v. 8, 9. "And the rem-
nant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles in the midst of
many people, as a lion among the beasts of the forests, as
a young lion among the flocks of sheep; who if he go
through, both treadeth down and teareth in pieces, and
nonecandeliver. nine hand shall be lifted up upon thine
adversaries, and all thine enemies shall be cut off." Gi-
deon's company, with which he overcame his mighty ene-
mies, were not only small but weak, and without weapons
of war. Agreeably to this is Isa. x1i. 14, &c. 11 Fear not,
thou worm Jacob, and ye men (or fetv men, as it is in the
margin) of Israel ; I will help th~e, saith the Lord, and
thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel. Behold, I will
make thee a new sharp ibreshing instrument having teeth;
tbou shalt thresh the mountains and beat them small, and
shalt make the hills as chaff," &c. And Mic. iv. 7. 11 1
will make her that balted a remnant, and her that was cast
far off, a strong nation ;" with verse 13. 11 Arise, and thresh,
0 daughter of Zion : for I will make thine horn iron, and
I will make thy hoofs brass; and thou shalt beat in
pieces many people," &(,. Zeph. iii. 12. " I will also leave
in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
shall trust in the name of the Lord." Ver. 16, 17. " In
that day it shall be said to Jerusalem, Fear thou not, and
to Zion, Let not thine hands be slack, or faint" (as it is in
the margin). 11 The Lord thy God in the midst of thee is
mighty, he will save." Ver. 19. 11 Behold, at that time I
will undo all that afflict thee, and I will save her that
haltetb I " &c. The representation of a cake of barley
bread tumbling into the host of Midian, and comin~
unto a tent, and smiting it that it fell, and overturned
it, that the tent lay along, signifying Gideon's destro ' v-
ing the host of Midian, Judg. v. 13. is not unlike that
in Daniel ii. of a stone cut out of the mountains with-
out hands the and breaking it all in pieces,
that it all = as 't7hhaff of the summer threshing
floor. Gideon and his company overcame and destroved
the mighty host of their enemies, without any other vi~ea-
pons than trumpets and lamps. This is agreeable to the
prophecies of the Messiah, which show that the weapons
by which he should overcome his enemies. should not be
carnal but spiritual, and particularly that it should be by
the preaching of the word. Ps. cx. 2. The Lord shall
send the rod of thy strength out of Zion rule thou in the
midst of thine enemies:" together with Isa. xi. 4. 11 Ile
shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, with the
breath of his ' ips shall he slay the wicked." Isa. xlix. 2.
11 And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword." The
word of God is in the Old Testament compared to a lamp
and a light. Prov. vi. 23. 11 For the commandment is a
lamp and the law is a light." Ps. cxix. 105. " Thy word
is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path ;" and
rculaiiv it is io represented in the prophecies of the
essiah's'times. Isa. li. 4. 11 A law shall proceed from
me, and I will make my udgment to rest for a light of the
people. So preaching the word in the Old Testament is
compared to blowing a trumpet. Isa. Iviii. 1. 11 Lift up
thy voice like a trumpet : show my people their trans-
gression." Ezek. xxxiii. 2, 3, &c. 11 If the people take a
man-and set him for their watchman ;-if he
blow the trumpet, and warn the people," &e. Particu-
larl , V it is so represented in the prophecies of the Messiah's
times. Isa. xxvii. 13. 11 And it shall come to pass in that
day, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall
come that were ready to perish," &c. Ps. lxxxix. 15.
" Blessed is the people that know theJoyful sound. They
shall walk, 0 Lord, in the light of thy countenance."
God destroyed the host of Midian b ' y setiing every man's
sword against his fellow. Agreeably to this is Hag. ii. 22.
11 And the horses and their riders shall come down, every
one by the sword of his brother." Ezek. xxxviii. 14.
" Every man's sword shall be against his brother." Gideon
led cap~tivitv captive, agreeably to Ps. Nviii. He led those
kings and princes in chains that before had taken them
captives; agreeably to Ps. cxlix. 7-9. "To execnte ven-
geance upon the h~athen, and punishments upon the peo-
ple: to bind their kings in chains, and their nobles with
retters of iron : to execute upon them the judgment writ-
ten. This bonou r have all the saints."
There is a no less remarkable agreement between the things said of Samson in his history, and the things said of the Messiah in the prophecies of fiim. His name Samson signifies Little San, well agreeing with a type of the Mes-siah, that Great Sun of righteousness, so often compared in the prophecies to the sun. The antitvpe is far greater than the type, as being its end. Therefcr~e, "vhen the type is called by the name of the antitype, it is fitly with a di-minutive termination. Samson and other saviours under the Old Testament, that were types of the great Saviour, were but little saviours. The Xropliets, priests, kings, captains, arid deliverers of the 01 Testament, were indeed images of the great light of the church and the world that was to follow. But they were but images: they were little lights, that shone during the night. But when Christ came, the great light arose and introduced the day. Sam-son's birth was miraculous; it was a great wonder in his case, that a woman should 11 compass a man," as the pro-Qhecies represent it to be in the case of the birth of the
Tessiah. Samson was raised up to be a saviour to God's people from their enemies, agreeably to prophetical repre-sentations of the Messiah. Samson' was appointed to this great work by God's special election and designation, and
that i n an em i nent and ex traordinary way, agreeabl v to the
prophecies of the Messiah. Samson -is a Nazarite from
tbewomb. The word Nazaritesiornifieswparated. This
denotes holiness and purity. The Nazarite was, with very
great and extraordinary cane and strictness indeed, to ab
stain from the least legal defilement; as appears by Num.
vi. 6. and the reason is given in the 8th verse. 11 All the
da ' vs of his separation he is holy unto the Lord :"and with
the utmost strictness he was to abstain from wine and
strong drink, and every thing that appertained in any re-
spect to the fruit of the vine; wine being the liquor'that
was especially the object of the carnal appetites of men.
And he was io suffer no razor to come upon his head, any
way to alter what be was by nature, because that woula
defile it, as the lifting up a tool to hew the stones of the
altar would defile it. The design of those institutions con-
cerning the Nazarite, about his hair and about wine, is de-
clared, Num. vi. 5. 11 He shall be holy, and shall let the
locks of the hair grow." This sanctity of the Nazarite re-
presenting a perfect holiness both negative and positive, is
spoken of in Lam. iv. 7. " Her Nazarites were purer than
snow : they were whiter than milk : they were more ruddy
in body than rubies : their polishing was of sapphire!'
Theref6re Samson's being a Nazarite from the womb, re-
markably represents that perfect innocence and purity, and
transcendent holiness of nature and life in the Messiah,
which the prophecies often speak of. The great things that
SaInson wrought for the deliverance of Israel and the over-
throw of their enemies, was not by any natural strength of
his, but by the special influence and extraordinary assist-
ance of the Spirit of God, Judg. xiii. 25. and xiv. 6, 19.
and xv. 14. xvi. 20. agreeabl ' v to many prophecies I have
alread , v observed of the Messiah's being anointed and filled
with God's Spirit, and being upheld, and helped, and
strengthened, and succeeded by God. Samson married a
Philistine, and all the women that he loved were of that
people that were his great enemies. Agreeably to those
prophecies that represent the Messiah as marr ' ving an alien
from the commonwealth of Israel : as Ps. xlv.. and his
marrying one that was the daughter of the accursed people
of Canaan, Ezek. xvi. 3, 8, &c. together with the latterend
of (lie chapter, and the many prophecies that speak of
Christ's calling the Gentiles and his saving sinners. Sam-
son was a person of exceeding great strength ; herein lie is
like the Messiah, as he is represented, Ps. lxxxix. 19. 11 1
have laid help on one that is mighty." Ps. xlv. 3. 11 Gird
on thy sword or) tbv thigh, 0 most mightv, in thy glory
and i~ th ' v majest ' Y." Isa. 1xiii. 1. Who is this-travel-
ling in the greatness of his strength When Samson was
going to take his wife, a ' young lion roared against him.
So the enemies of the Messiah and his people are com-
pared to a lion roaring upon him, gaping with his mouth
read ' v to devour him. Ps. xxii. 13. "They gaped upon me
with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion. Ver.
21. 11 Save me fi-orn the lion's mouth." Samson rent the
lion as tire lion would have rent the kid ; which is agree-
able to the prophecies which represent the Messiah de-
zro g his enemies as a strong lion devouring his prey.
x,,x 9, &C. and the many prophecies that s k of
his punishing leviathan with his great, and sorean strong
sword, his mightil ' v and dreadfully destroying his enemies,
treading them down as the mire, treading them in his anger
and trampling them in his fury, sprinkling: his raiment with
their blood, &c. Samson is fed with honey out of the
carcass of the lion, which is agreeable to what the prophe-
cies represent of the glorious benefits of the Messiah's con-
quest over his enemies, to himself and his people, his own
ascension, glor ' v, and kingdom, and the glory of his people.
Samson made a feast on occasion of his marriage, which is
agreeable to Isa. xxv. 6. " And in this mountain shall the
Lord of hosts make unto all people a feast of fat things;
a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow ;
of wines on the lees well refined." Isa. 1xv. 13, 14. 44 My
servants shall eat-my servants sball drink-my servants
shall reJoice-my servants shall sing for joy of heart;" and
innum~rjble prophecies that speak of the great plenty and
joy of God's people in the Messiah's times; and this ac-
companyine ihe Messiah's marriage with his spiritual
spouse. See Isa. 1xii. 4, 5, 7-9. and Hos. ii. 19-22.
and Cant. ii. 4. and v. 1. When Samson visited his wife
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
with a kid, fie was rejected, and her younger sisterv that
was fairer than she, given to him;'Judg. xv. 2. Which
is agreeable to what the prophecies re resent of the Mes-
siah's coming to the Jews first, when C was offered up as
a lamb or kid, and making the first offer of the glorious
benefits of his sacrifice to them, and their rejecting him,
and the calling of the Gentiles, and the more glorious and
beautiful state of the Gentile church than of the ancient
Jewish church. In Judg. xvi. 1, 2. we have an account
how Samson ioved a harlot, and from his love to her ex-
Ced himself to be compassed round by his enemies. So
t e prophecies represent the Messiah as loving a sinful
people, and from love seeking such a people to be his
spouse, as that which occasions his suffering from his ene-
mies. Isa. Iiii. taken with the following chapter. Samson,
while his enemies are compassing him round, to destroy
him, rises from Sleep, and fi-om midnight darkness, and
takes away the strength and fortification of the city of his
enemies, the gate of the city, which his enemies shut and
barred fast upon him to confine him, and the two posts,
bar and all, and put them on his shoulders, and carried
them up to the top of a hill. Judg. xvi. 3. So the -
rhecies represent the Messiah, when compassed rounTrboy
)is enemies, rising from the sleep of death, and emerging
out of the thick darkness of his sorrows and sufferings,
spoiling his enemies, and ascending into heaven, and lead-
i . ng ca tivity captive. Samson was betrayed and sold by
Delilat, his false spouse or companion. So the prophecies
do represent the Messiah as sold by his false and treacher-
o9s peop,9. Samson was delivered up into the hands of
his enemies, and was mocked and derided, and very
cruelly treated by them ; agreeably to what is foretold of
the Messiah. Samson died partly through the cruelty and
murderous malice of his enemies, and partly from his own
act: agreeably to what is foretold of the Messiah. Ibid.
§ 51, 58, 59,72. Samson at big death destro ' ved his ene-
mies, and the destrLICtiOn lie made of his enemies was
chiefly at his death ; which is agreeable to Isa. iiii. 10-12.
and Psal. 1xviii. 18. Samson overthrew the cin le of
Dagon, which is agreeable to what the propliec es say of
the Messiah's overthrowing idols and idol wors ip in the
world. Samson destroyed his enemies sudde 1~ -in the
midst of their triumph over him, so that their in ting him
in the prospect of his destruction, instantly issues in their
own destruction ; agreeably to [sa. xxix. ~-8.
There is a yet more remarkable, manifest, and manifold agreement between the things said of David in his history, and the things said of the Messiah in the prophecies. His name David signifies beloved, as the rophecies do repre-sent the Messiah as in a peculiar anx transcendent man-ner the beloved o?f God. David was God's elect in an eminent manner.'- Saul was the king whom the people chose. 1 Sam. vill. 18. and xii. 13. But David wag the king whom God chose, one whom he found and pitched upon according to his own mind, without any concern of man in the affair, and contrary to what men would have chosen. When Jesse caused all his elder sons to pass before Samuel, God said concerning one and another of them, 11 The Lord hath not chosen this; neither hath the Lord chosen this," &e. See 1 Chron. xxviii. 4. There David says, 11 The Lord God of Israel chose me before all the house of my father, to be king over Israel for ever: for lie hath chosen Judah to be the ruler; and of the house of Judah the house of my father; and among the sons of mv father he liked me to make me king over all Israel." See Psal. lxxviii. 67-70. and lxxxix. 3. 11 1 have made a covenant with my chosen; I have sworn unto David my servant;" agreeably to Isa. x1ii. 1. " Mine elect," &c. 49. 11 And he shall choose thee." lie was a king of God's finding and providing, and he speaks of him as his king. 1 Sam. xvi. 1. 11 1 will send thee t o Jesse-
It m su
for I have provided me a king among his sons." 2 Sam. xxii. 51. 11 Ile is the lower of salvation for his king." Agreeably to Psal. ii. 11 1 have set my king upon my holy hill of Zion." He is spoken of as a man after God4s own heart, and one in whom God delighted. 2 Sam. xxii. 20. 11 He delivered me because he delighted in me;" avree-abl , v to Isa. x1ii. I - 94 Behold my servant whom I uphold; mine elect in whom my soul delighteth." David %vag in a very eminent manner God's anointed, or MCssiah, (ag
the word is,) and is so spoken of, NAI. xxii. 51. 11 He showeth mercy to his anointed, unto David;" and xxiii. 1. 11 David, the son of Jesse;-the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob." Psal. lxxxix. 19, 20. 11 1 have exalted one chosen out of the people; I have found David my servant; with my h9l
oil have I anointed him." Samuel anointed him witK
peculiar solemnity. 1 Sam. xvi. 13. See how this agrees
with the prophecies of the Messiah. David's anointing
remarkably agrees with what the prophecies say of the
anointing of the Messiah, which speak of him as a being
anointed with, the Spirit of God. So David was anointed
with the Spirit of God, at the same time that he was
anointed with oil. I Sam. xvi. 13. 11 And Samuel took
the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his bre-
thren; and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from
that day forward., David is spoke.n of as being ayoor
man, of a low family, and in mean circumstances. 1 Nam.
xviii. 23. " I am a poor man, and lightly esteem-ed." 2
Sam. vii. 18. 11 Who am I ? and what is my house, that
thou hast brought me hitherto?" Agreeably to this, it is
said of the Messiah in the prophecies, that he was a root
out of a dr ' v ground, that he was a low tree. David is
spoken of as an eminently holy person, a man after God's
own heart. Ile is spoken of in the history of the kings of
Judah, as one whose heart was perfect with the Lord his
God ; I Kings xi. 4. ; one that went fully after the Lord ;
I Kings, xi. 6. ; one that did that that was right in the eyes
of the Lord. I Kings xv. 11. 2 Kings xviii. 3. 2 Chron.
xxviii. 1. and xxix. 2. He is spoken of as pure, u right,
and righteous ; one that had clean hands; that kep the
wavs of the Lord, and did not wickedly depart fr. in God;
2 Sam. xxii. 21-27. This agrees with what is said in the
pro h i s of the Messiah. David was i the youngest son
of Jes's'e'; as the Messiah in the prophecies is spoken of as
coming in the latter days. Ile has frequently the appella-
tion of God's servant. It would be endless to mention all
the places ; see them in the Concordance under the word
servant David. So has the Messiah often this appellation
in the prophecies. Isa. x1ii. 1-19. xlix. 3-6. Iii. 13. Iiii.
11. Zech. iii. &. David's outward appearance was not
such as would have recommended him to the esteem and
choice of men, as a person fit for rule and victory, but, on
the contrary, such as tended to cause men to despise him
as a candidate for such things; I Sam. xvi. 7. 11 Look not
on his countenance, or on the height of his stature--for
man looketh on the outward appearance; but the Lord
looketh on the heart." 1 Sam. xxii. 42. " And when the
Philistine looked about and saw David, be disdained
him; for he was but a Youth." Ver. 56. " Inquire whose
son the stripling is." El iab, his elder brother, thought him
fitter to be with the sheep, than to come to the army. I
Sam. xvii. 28. Agreeably to Isa. lifi. 2. 11 He shall grjw up
before him a,, a tender plant, as a root out of a dry ground.
He hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see
him, there is no beauty that we should desire him." David
appeared unexpectedly. Samuel expected a man of great
stature, and appearing ontwardly like a man of valour; and
therefore when he saw Eliab, David's elder brother, that had
such an appe nee, he said, silrely the Lord's anointed is
before him. is appearance wag astonishing to Goliath and
to Sall]. S e prophecies represent the Messiah's appear-
ance as un ected and astonishing, being so mean. Isa.
x1ii. 14. 11 Man * y were astonished at thee. His visage was so
marred more than any man." But ' Yet David was ruddy and
of a fair countenance, and goodly to look to. 1 Sam. xvi. 12.
xvii. 42. agreeable to Psalm x1v. 2. Thou art fairer than
the children of men." Cant. v. to. 51y beloved is white
and rudd - v, the chiefest among ten thousands." lie was
anointed king after offering sacrifice. I Sam. xvi. So
the prophecies represent the -Messiah's exaltation to his
kingdom, after he had by his sufferings offered up a sacri-fice to atone for the sins of men. David says of himself, 1 Chron. xxviii. 14."' Tile Lord God of Isracl chose me to be king over Israel for ever." And God says to him, 2 Sam. vii. 16. 11 And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee. Thy throne shall be established for ever." This is agreeable to the ro he cies of the Messiah. David, by oCcupation, was Pa Xep: herd, and afterwards was made a shepherd to (zed's Israel.
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
Ps. lxxviii. 70-72. 11 He chose David his servantand
took him from the sheepfolds, from following the ewes great
with young. He brought him to feed Jacob his people,
and Israel his inheritance." This is agreeable to man i V
prophecies of the Messiah, who is often spoken of in them
as the shepherd of God's people, and therein is expressly
compared to David. Isa. A. 11. " Ile shall feed his flock
like a shepherd." Isa. xlix. 9, 10. 11 They shall feed in
the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places.
They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither sball the heat nor
sun smite them. Per he that bath mercy on them shall
lead them; by the springs of water shall he guide them."
Jer. xxiii. 4 , 5. 11 And I will set up shepherds over them,
which shall feed them-I will raise up unto David a
righteous branch," &c. Ezek. xxxiv. 23. 11 And I will set
up one shepherd over them, and be shall feed them; even
m servant David: he shall feed them, and shall be their
Me berd." Ezek. xxxvii. 24. 11 And David my servant
sharl be king over them, and they shall have one shepherd."
Cant. i. 7. 11 Tell me, 0 thou whom my soul loveth,
where thou feedest, where then makest thy ftock to rest at
noon." David was of an humble, meek, and merciful
sp~rit. 1 Sam - xviii. 2 3. 2 Sam. vi. 21, 2 2. vii. 18. 1 Sam.
xxiv. throughout, and xxvi. throughout; 2 Sam. ii. 5, 21.
and iv. 9, &c. vii. 18. 2 Sam. xxii. 26. and many places
in the Psalms show the same s irit, too manly to be men-
tioned. This is agreeable to w9at is said of the Messiah,
Zech. ix. 9. 11 He is 'ust and having salvation, lowly and
riding on an ass, aV a colt the fool of an ass." Isa. x1ii.
3. 11 A bruised reed shall he not break," &c. Isa. xl. 11.
11 He shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them
in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with
young." Isa. Iiii. 7. " He is brought as a lamb to the
slaughter, as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he
op~neth not his mouth." David was a pers?n that was
eminent for wisdom and prudence. I Sam. xvi. 18. 11 Be-
hold, I have seen a son of Jesse-prudent in matters."
And xviii. 5. 11 And David behaved himself wisely." Ver.
14. 11 And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways."
Ver. 30. , David bebaved himself more wisely than all
the servants of Saul." Ps. lxxviii. 72.4' Ile guided them
by the skilfulness of his hands." This is agreeable to
what is said of the Messiah, Isa. ix. 6. Chap. xi. 2, 3. x1i.
two last verses, with x1ii. 1. Iii. 13. Zech. iii. 9. David is
said to be 11 a mighty valiant man." 1 Sam. xvi. 18.
11 Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse, a mighty valiant
man." This is agreeable to Ps. x1v. 3. It Gird thy sword
up~n tb , v thigh, 0 most m , ht , with thy glorY, and thy
nil Isa. 1xiii. 1. It Coy is this travelling in the
greatness of his strength ? I that speak in righteousness,
mighty to save." And in this very thing the Messiah is
comp~Ted to David. Ps. lxxxix. 19, 20. 11 1 have laid help
upon one that is migbty ; I have exalted one chosen out of
the people; I have found David my servant." David was
a sweet musician ; was preferred as such to all that were
to be found in Israel, to relieve Saul in his melancholy.
He is called 11 the sweet Psalmist of Israel." 2 Sam. xxiii.
1. He led the whole church of Israel in their p!uises.
He instituted the order of singers and musicians in the
house of God. He delivered to the church the book of
songs they were to use in their ordinary public worshi .
This is ri ost a.-reeablp to the prophecies of the Messiz,
which do every ~bere represent, that he should introduce
the most pleasant, joyful, glorious state of the church,
wherein they should abound in the praises of God, and the
world be filled with sweet and joyful songs after sorrow
and weeping; wherein songs Mould be heard from the
uttermost ends of the earth, and all nations should sing, and
the mountains and trees of the field, and all creatures, sun,
moon, and stars, heaven and earth, should break forth into
n and even the dead should awake and sing, and
ZTegloter parts of the earth should shout, and the tongue
of the dumb should sing and the dragons and all deeps;
the barren, the risoners, the desolate, and mourners should
sin~., and all nation should come and sing in the height of ion; they should sing aloud, and sing a new song, or in a new manner, with music and praises exalting all that had been before. The particular texts are too many to enumerate. The patriarch from whom Christ descenaed, for this reason is called Judah, i. e. Praise: and the Mes-
siah is represented as leading tlje church of God in their sweet and joyful songs. Ps. xxii. 22. 11 1 will declare thy name unto my brethren. In the midst of the congregation will I praise thee." Ver. 25. 11 My praise shall be of thee in the great congregation." Ps. xix. 30-32. 11 1 will praise the name or God with a SODg,and Will magnify him with thanksgiving. The humble shall see this and be td." Ver. 34. 11 Let the heaven and the earth praise im, the seas and every thing that moveth therein." See also Ps. cxxxviii. 1 -~. We read in Ps. lxxxix. 15. of the joyful sound that shall be at that time; and the day of the Messiah's kingdom is compared to the spring, the 'time of the singing of birds. Cant. ii. David slew a lion and a bear, and delivered a lamb out of their mouths. So the enemies of the Messiah and of his people are in the prophecies compared to a lion, as was observed before. So the rophetical representations made of God's people that are Slelivered by the Messiah, well agree with a symbol of a lamb. The'propbecies represent them as feeble, poor, and defenceless in themselves, and as meek and harmless. Ps. xlv. 4. and xxii. 26. lxix. 32. cxlvii. 6. and cxlix. 4. Isa. xi. 4. xxix. 19. and 1xi. 1. David comes to the camp of Israel, to save them from Goliath and the Philistines, 'us' at a time when they were in special and immediate
g . when the host -,~ere going forth to the fight, and out,
h for the battle. So the Messiah in the prophecies is represented as appearing to save his people at the time of their extremity. So God appeared for the redemption of his people out of Egypt. But Balaarn prophesying of the redemption of the Messiah, Numb. xxiii. 23. says, ac-cording to this time shall it be said of Jacob and of Israel, What hath God wrought? This is also agreeable to that prophecy of the deliverance of God's
rile in the Mes-siah's times; Deut. xxxii. 36. 11 The shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth that thci~ power is gone, and there is none shut up or left." So Ps. xiv. and Iiii. and xxi. 11, 12. and xlvi. and Iviii. 7, to the end; and Ix. and cxviii. 10, to the end; and xxviii. 21,22.; and xxix. 5-8.; and xxx. 27-30.; xxxi. 4-5. A the latter end, and x1i. throughout, x1ii. at the beginning, li. 7, to the end, and many other places. David was hated and envied by his brethren, and misused by them, when he came to them on a kind errand from his father, to bring them provision. Herein be resembled the -Messiah as Joseph did. David kills Goliath, who, in his huge stature, great strength, migbty army, and exceeding pride, much resembled the devil, according to the representations of the devil in the pro be ies of the Messiah's con-quest and destruction of timc; who is called, Leviathan, (Isa. xxvii. 1.) which in the Old Testament is repre-sented as a huge and terrible creature of vast strength and impenetrable armour, disdaining the weapons and strength of his enemies, and the king !~Ver all the chil-dren of pride; Job x1i. David went agamst Goliath with-out carnal weapons. David prevailed against Goliath with a sling and a stone, which is agreeable to Zech. ix. 15. 11 The Lord of hosts shall defend tbemXd they shall de-vour and subdue with sling-stones." 'id , "lien going against Goliath, took strength out of the brook in the way, agreeable to that concerning the Messiah, Ps. ex. 6, 7. 11 He shall fill the places with the dead bodies: he shall wound the heads over many countries: he shall drink of the brook in the way ; therefore shall he lift up the head." David cut off the 'head of the Philistine with his own sword. So it may be clearly gathered from what the pro-phecies say of the Messiah sufferings, and that from the cruelty of `tiis enemies, and the consequences of them with respect to his exaltation and victory over his enemies, that the Messiah shall destroy Satan with his own weapons. David carried the head of Goliath to Jerusalem: which is agreeable to what is foretold.of the Messiah, Psal. 1xviii. 18. 11 Thou hast ascended on high; thou hast led captivity captive;" together with the context. David put Goliath s armour in his tent : which is agreeable to Psal. lxxvi. 2, 3. 'I In Salem ig his tabernacle, (or tent,) and his dwelling-place in Zion. There brake be thearrows of the bow, the shield, the sword, and the battle." When Saul saw David returning from his victory, be says repeatedly with great admiration concerning him, 11 Whose son is this youth?" 1 Sam. xvii. 55. 14 Inquire whose son this stripling is;"
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
ver. 56. "Whose son art thou?" ver. 58. agreeably to Psal.xxviii.8. "Who is this king of glory?" Again,ver. to. and Isa. 1xiii. 1. "Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosrah ? This that is
Ilonious in his apparel," &c. The daughters of Israel went .Irth to meet king David, and sang praises to him when he returned from the slaughter of the Philistine ; agree-ably to Psal. xxiv. and lxviii- and oth laces. in I:Ittr
David obtained his wife by exposing, b7lnY with
the Philistines, and in destroying them - agreeably to what
is prophesied of the Messiah's sufferings and aeath, his
conflict with and victory.over his enemies, and his redemp-
tion of his church by this means, and the consequent joy
of his espousals with the ehurch.
David was a great saviour. He saved Israel from Go-liath, and the Philistines, and from all their enemies round about. 2 Sam. iii. 18. 11 The Lord hath spoken of David, saying, By the hand of my servant David will I save my ptiople Israel out of the hand of the Philistines, and out of the hand of all their enemies; agreeably to the prophe-cies of the Messiah. David was greatly persecuted, and
his life sought un . h ' f the
Messiah. David s marriage wit Abigail, the wife of a son of Belial, a virtuous woma.n,.and of a beautiful countenance, is agreeable to the innumerable prophecies that represent the church of the Messiah, that the ropbe-cies slieak of as his spouse, as brought into that happy state from a state of guilt and bondage to sin. David was resorted to by every one that was in distress, and ever
one that was in debt, and every one that was bitter of souT, and he became their captain; which is agreeable to innumer able prophecies that represent the Messiah as the Captain and Saviour of the poor,afflicted, distressed sinners and pri-soners, &c. David's host is compared to the host of God, 1 Chron. xii. 22. which is agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the divinity of the Messiah, and God's people in his times, and under him becoming asan host of mighty valiant men,that shall thresh the mountains, and tread down their enemies, &-,c. David, as it were raised from the dead, was wonderfully delivered from death, when fronigreat dan-ger he was brought back from the wildemess, and from ban-ishment, and from eaves of the earth that resembled the grave; (Psal.xxx. 3. 11 0 Lord, thou hast brought up my soul from the grave;") which is agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah's restoration from his low and suffering state and resurrection from death. David was made king over the strong city Hebron, that had been taken from the Ana-kims, the gigantic enemies of "'s people : which. is agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah's conquering the strong city, bringing low the lofty city, conquering the devil, and taiiing lx~ssession of the mightiest and strongest kingdoms of the world. David's followers that -came to him to make him king, were men of understanding, might
till he had subdued all his enemies. ltwasfirstin av n time, that God chose him a place to put his name there. Through him God made Jerusalem his holy city, and the place of his special gracious residence : agreeably to the prophecies of the Messiah. Psal. exxxii. 13, &c. Zech. i.
17. and ii. 12. and Isa. xiv. 1. David provided a settled
habitation for God, and God is represented as through his
favour to David taking up a settled abode with them, no
more walking in a movable tent and tabernacle that in* hnt
be taken down, and giving Israel a constant abode, t
they might no more be afflicted, and carried into captivity;
2 Sam. vii. 6, 10, 24.; according to many becies of
the Messiah. David provide( gru"s habita-
tion in Zion and in mount Morial~; agreeably to Zech. vi.
12. "He shall build the temple of the Lord." David
brought up the ark to abide in the midst of God's people;
after it had departed into the land of the Philistines, and
had Ion remained in the utmost confines of the land, in
K,~,ath g .
re sent of the benefit which the people of Vin the
days shall receive, in the return of the tokens of
God's presence to them, after long absence, and his placing
his tabernacle in the midst of them, and his soul's no
more abhorring them. David ascended into the hill of the
Lord with the ark, at the head of all Israel, rejoicing, and
gave gifts to men. 2 Sam. vi. But this is agreeable to
what is said of the ascension of the Messiah. Psal. 1xviii.
David ascended with the ark wherein was the law of
God ; as the Messiah ascended with that human nature
that was the cabinet of the law. David after he had
ascended returned to bless his household, as the Mes-
siah llv blessed his church after his ascension.
But = his first wife despised his abasement, and
received no part in this blessing, but was as it were repu-
diated ; as the prophecies do represent the Jews, as de-
spising the Messiah for his humiliation, and so, as not
receiving the benefits and blessing that he should bestow
after his ascension, but as being repudiated. When Da-
vid came to the crown, God broke forth on his enemies, aq
the breach of watcr, and in a dreadful storm of thunder,
fire, and hail. 2 Sam. v. 20. 1 Chron. xiv. 9. and Psalm
xviii. which is agreeable to Isa. xxiv. 18-20. Dan. ix.
26. Ezek. xxxviii. 22. Isa. xxx. 30. xxxii. 19. Yea, the
destruction of the enemies of God's people, in the days of
the Messiah, is expressly compared to that very breAing
forth of " on the enemies of David ; l9a. xxviii. 21.
11 For the Lord shall rise tip as in mount Perazim." The
king of Tyre (that wa-, above all others in the world, a city
noted for merchandise and seafaring) built David 'a
house. 2 Sam. v. 11. 1 Chron. xiv. 1. David was not
only a king, but a great prophet, 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. and also
was a priest. He officiated as such on occasion of the
bringlig in of the ark. 2 Sam. vi. 13-18. 1 Chron. xv.
27 . gain he officiated as such, 2 Sam. xxvii. 17, to the
end, and 1 Chron. xvi. 21, &c. And in some respects he
officiated as chief in all sacerdotal matters, ordering all
things in the house of God, directing and ordering the
priests in things relating to their function, dis osing them
into courses, &c. So the prophecies do abuZantly repre-
sent the Messiah as prophet, priest, and king. David is
spoken of as the man that was raised tip on high; which
is agreeable to what is said of the essiah in Psalm
lxxxix. 19. 11 1 have exalted one chosen out of the peo-
I " and v". 27. "1 will make him my first-born,
g an the kings of the earth. Psalm x1v. 11 ThY throne, 0 God, is for ever;" and Psalm cx. 11 Sit thou On my right band ;" aud innumerable other places. He is spoken of as eminently a just ruler, one that fed God's people in the integrity of his heart and executed judgment and justice ; 2 Sam. viii. 15. 1 Chron. xviii. 14. which is agreeable to that which is abundantly spoken of the Messiah, as the just Ruler over men; the King that sha I I reign in righteousness ; he shall sit on the throne of his father David, to order and establish it with judgment and justice ; the righteous branch that shall grow up to Da-vid, &e. God made David a name like the name of the great men that are in the earth. See also 2 Sam. vii. 9. viii. 13. agreeable to Isa. Iiii. 12. 11 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the areat." The fame of David went out into all lands ; the Lord brought the fear of him upon all nations. I Chron. xiv. 17. Agreeable to Psal. xlv. 17.
1. 11 All nations shall serve him." Ver. 17. 11 His name shall endure for ever ;" and innumerable other place,;. David carried up the ark, clothed with a robe of fine
linen; I Chron. xv. 27. agreeable to Isa. Ixi. 10. " He
bath clothed me with the garments of salvation ; be bath
covered me with a robe of righteousness." Zech. iii. 4.
" Take away the filthy garments from him; and unto him
he said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass
from thee, and I will clothe thee with change orraiment."
See also Dan ' x' 5 * contgared with 13, and 21. and xii. 1.
God was with David w ithersoever he went, and cut off
all his enemies. 2 Sam. vii. 9. and viii. 6, 14. 1 Chron.
xvii. 8, 10. xviii. 6, 13. 2 Sam. xxii. 1, &c. agreeable to
Psal. ii. and xlv. ex. lxxxix. and innumerable other places.
David subdued all the remainder of the Canaanites, and
the ancient inhabitants of the land, and so perfected what
Joshua had begun in giving the people the land. See
what is said of Joshua as a type of the Messiah in this
respect. David brought it to pass that the Canaanites and
enemies of Israel should no longer dwell with them, as
mi-xed among them in the same land. Joel iii. 17. 11 No
stranger shall pass through thee any more." Zech. xiv.
21. 11 In that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in
the house of the Lord." Psal. Ixix. 35, 36. " For God
will save Zion and will build the cities of Judah, that
they may dwell there, and have it in possession. The
seed also of his servants shall inherit it, and they that
love thy name shall dwell therein." Isa. 1xv. 9-11.
" And I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob and out of
Judah, an inheritor of my mountains ; and mine elect
shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there." Isa.
xxxv. 8. 11 An highway shall be there, and a way, and it
shall be called the x~ay of holiness : the unclean shall
not pass over it." Ez*,k. xx. 38. 11 And I will purge out
from among vou the rebels and them that transgress against
me. I will 'bring them forth out of the country where
the ' v so ' journ, and thev shall not enter into the land of
Israel. David subdued the Philistines, and the Moabites
and Ammonites, and the Edomites, agreeably to Isa. xi.
14. Num. xxiv. 17. Psal. Ix. 8. and cviii. 9. Isa. xxv.
10. chap. xxxiv. and 1xiii. Ezek. xxxv. xxxvi. 5. David's
kingdom reached from the river to the ends of the earth.
2 Sam. viii. 3. 2 Chron. xviii. 3. agreeable to Psal. lxxii.
B. Zech. ix. 10. David' s reign was a time of the destruc-
tion of giants; he slew all the remnant of the race of
giants. I Sam. xvii. 2 Sam. xxi. 18, to the end, and
xxiii. 20, 21. 1 Chron. xx. 4, to the end, and xi. 22, 23.
agreeable to Isa. x. 33. " And the high ones of stature
shall be hewn down, and the haughty shall be humbled."
This seems (as I observed before) to be connected with
the prophecv in the beginninz of the next chapter, next
verse but one. Isa. xlv. 14. The Sabeans, men of sta-
ture, shall come over to thee in chains shall they come
over." Psal. lxxvi. 5. 11 The stout-hearted are spoiled ;
they have slept their sleep." David destroyed the cha-
riots and houghed the horses of the enemies of God's peo-
ple. 2 Sam. viii. 4. x. 18. 1 Chron. xviii. 4. and xix. 7.
agreeablY to Psal. xlvi. 9. 11 He breaketh the bow and
cutteth the spear in sunder. He burneth the chariot in
the fire." Psal. lxxvi. 3. " There brake be the arrows of
the bow, the shield, and the sword, and, the battle. Ver.
6. 11 At thy rebuke, 0 God of Jacob, both the chariot and
horse are cast into a dead sleep." See also Ezek. xxxix.
9, 10, 20. and Zech. xii. 3, 4. What David sa ' ys, Psal.
xviii. and 2 Sam. xxii. of the manner in which God ap-
peared for him against his enemies, to destroy them in a
terrible tempest with thunder, lightning, earthquake, de-
vouring fire, &c. is agreeable to many things in the pro-
phecies of the Messiah. See what has before been ob-
served, when speaking of the deluge and destruction of
Sodom, and the destruction of the Arnorites in Joshua's
time. Other kings brought presents unto David and bowed
down unto him. 2 Sam. v. 11. 1 Chron. xiv. 1. 2 Sam. viii.
2, 10. 1 Chron. xviii. 10. 2 Sam. x. 19. 1 Chron. xxii. 4.
agreeable to Psal. lxxii. 10, 11. xIv. 12. 1xviii. 29. Isa.
xlix. 7. and Ix. 9.
The honour, dominion, and crown of David's enemies was given unto him. 2 Sam. xii. 30. and 1 Chron. xx. 2. Ezek. xxi. 26, 27. " Thus saith the Lord, Remove the diadem and take off the crown; this shall not be the same. Exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high: perverted, perverted, perverted will I make it, until be come whose right it is, and I will give it him." David's
sons were princes. David's sons were chief rulers or princes, as it is in the margin ; agreeably to Psal. xIv. 16. " Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom thou mayest make princes in all the eartfi." David brought the wealth of the heathen into Jerusalem and dedicated it to God, and as it were built the temple with it. 2 Sam. viii. 11, 12. 1 Chron. xviii. 11. and xKvi. 26,27. and chap. xxii. throughout, and xxix.; agreeably to Mic. iv. 13. "Arise, thresh, 0 daughter of Zion; for I will make thine horn iron, and thy hoofs brass ; and thou shalt beat in pieces many people; and I will consecrate their gain unto the Lord, ana their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth." Isa. xxiii. 17,18. "The Lord will visit Tvre-and her merchandise and hire shall be holiness unto ihe Lord. It shall not be treasured nor laid up ; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the Lord, to eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing." See also Isa. Ix. 5, 6, 9, fl, 13. Ixi. 6. and Zech. xiv. 14. David was a mediator; he stood between God and the people, both to keep offjudg-ments and the punishment of sin, and also to procure God's favour towards them. For his sake God granted his gracious presence and favour with Israel. 2 Sam. vii. 10. Thus we read of favour which God showed to Israel, and withholding judgments from time to time for his ser-vant David's sake. I Kings xi. 12, 13, 32, 34. xv. 4. 2 Kings viii. 19. xix. 34. arid xx. 6. And lie stood be-tween God and the people of Jerusalem, when he saw the sword of justice drawn against it to destroy it. 2 Sam. xxiv. 17, to the end. So the Messiah is spoken of as in like manner the Mediator; being himself peculiarly God's elect and beloved, is given for a covenant of the people, Isa. x1ii. 6. xlix. 8. and the messenger of the covenant, and a prophet like unto Moses, who was a mediator. And the prophecies speak of the forgiveness of sin, and the greatest mercy towards God's people, and an everlast-ing covenant, and the pure mercies of David, as being through the Messiah.
David as mediator saved the people of Jerusalem from destruction, by offering himself to suffer and die by the sword of the destroying angel, and by building an altar and offering sacrifice; 2 Sam. xxiv. 17, to the end, agree-ablv to the prophecies of the Messiah.
David not only made a tabernacle for God in mount
Zion, and so provided a habitation fQr the Lord, but he in
effect built the temple. He bought the ground on which
it was built, built an altar upon it, and made provision for
the building of the temple. It was in his heart to build a
house to God's name, and be directed and ordered pre-
cisely how it should be built, and ordered all its services,
I Chron. xxii. and xxiii. xxiv. xxv. xxvi. : aereeablv to
Zech. vi. 12, 13. Herein David was as the Messiah, a
prophet like unto Moses, who built the tabernacle and the
altar according to the pattern God gave him, (as be gave
David the pattern of the tabernacle,) and gave the ordi-
nances of the house, and ordered all things appertaining
to the worship of the tabernacle. God by David gave to
Israel new ordinances, a new law of worship, appointed
many things that were not in the law of Moses, and some
things that superseded the ordinances of Moses. This is
agreeable to the things said of the Messiah. David made
all manner of preparation for the building of the temple,
and that in vast abundance; he laid up an immense
treasure; 1 Chron. xxii. 14. xxviii. 14, &c. xxix. 2, &c.
agreeably to Isa. xxv. 6. 11 And in this mountain shall the
Lord make unto all people a feast of fat things," &c. Isa.
Iv. 1-9. 11 Ho, every one that thirsteth," &c. Hag. ii. 7.
11 1 will fill this house with glor ' v." Jer. xxxiii. 6. 11 1 will
reveal unto them the abundance of truth and peace." Isa.
1xiv. 11 Eye bath not seen, nor ear heard," &c. Isa.
lxvi. 12. 1 will extend peace to her as a river." Psal.
lxxii. 3. The mountains shall bring peace." Ver. 7.
And it shall come to pass in that da ' v, that the moun-
tains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow
with milk,and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters,
and a fountain shall come forth out of the house of the
Lord, and shall water the valle i v of Chittim." And Isa.
Ix. throughout ; besides the things which the prophecies
say of the perfect satisfaction of God's justice, Dy the sa-
crifice of the Messiah, and the abundance of his righteous-ness and excellency. David made such great provision for the building ofthe temple, in his trouble by war, and by exposing his own life, which is agreeable to what the Eil-esphlecies represent of Christ's procuring the immense
sings of his church, by his extreme sufferings and pre-cious blood. David was the head of God's people,ithe prince of the congregation of Israel, not only in their civil affairs, but in ecclesiastical affairs also, and their leader in all things appertaining to religion and the worship of God. Herein he was as the Messiah is represented in the pro-phecies, which speak of him is a prophet like unto Moses, and as the head of God'§ people, as their great king, pro-phet'-nd PA_ ts; and indeed almost all that the prophecies say of t~e es iah, implies that be shall be the great head of God s people in their religious concerns. David regu-lated the whole body of the people, and brought them into the most exact and beautiful order; 1 Chron. xxvii. which is agreeable to what is represented of the church in the Messiah's days, as 11 beautiful for situation." Isa. x1viii. 2. 11 The perfection of beauty." Psal. 1. 2. 11 An eternal excellency, the joy of many generatioiis." And what is re resented in Ezekiel of the exact measures and order of I parts of the temple, the city, and the whole land. David built the altar in the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, on Gentile ground ; which is agree-able to what the prophecies represent of the church of the Messiah being erected in Gentile lands, and being made up of those that had been sinners.
The things that are said of Solomon fall little, if any thing, short of those that are said of David, in their re'-markable agreement with things said of the Messiah in the pro becies His name ~~lonion, signifies peace or
peaceabte, and w*as given him by God himself, from respect
to the signification, because he should enjoy peace, and be
a means of peace to God's people. 1 Chron. xxii. 9. 11 Be-
hold, a son shall be born to thee, who shall be a man of
rest ; and I will give him rest from all his enemies round
about. For his name shall be Solomon; and I will give
peace and quietness unto Israel in his days." This is
agreeable to Isa. ix. 6, 7. 11 For unto us a child is born,
unto us a son is given ; and the government shall be upon
his shoulder; and his name shall be called-- The Prince
qflleme: of the increase of his--pcace there shall be no
end." Psal. ex. 11 Thou art a priest for ever after the order
of Melchizedec,",who as the apostle observes, was king of
Sakm, that is, king of peace. Psal. lxxii. 3. 11 The moun-
tains shall bring peace unto the people." Ver. 7. 11 In his
day s shall the righteous flourish; and abundance of peace
so long as the moon endureth." Psal. xxxv. 10. 11 Right-
eousness and peace have kissed each other." Isa. Iii. 7.
" How beautiful are the feet of bim-that publisheth
peace." Jer. xxxiii. 6. 11 1 will reveal unto them the
abundance of truth and peace :" and many other places.
When Solomon was born it is said the Lord loved him..
I Sam. xii. 24. And the prophet Nathan for this reason
called him by the name Jedidiah; i. e. the beloved the
Lord. He is also spoken of' as the beloved son 04 his
father. Prov. iv. 3. 11 For I was my father's son, tender
and only beloved in the sight of my mother." Solomon
was the son of a woman that had been the wife of a
Hittite,'a Gentile by nation ; fitly denoting the lionour
that the prophecies represent, that the Gentiles should have
by their relation to the Messiah. God made mention of
Solomon's name as one that was to be the great prince of
Israel and means of their happiness from his mother's
womb; agreeably to Isa. xlix. 1. 11 The Lord bath called
nie from the womb; from the bowels of m v mother bath
fie made mention of m , v name." God promised to estab-
lish the throne of Solomon for ever, in terms considerabI ' v
like those used by the prophets conicerning the kingdom of
the Messiah. 2 Sam. vii. 12. " I will set up thy seed
after thee wbich shall proceed out of thine own bowels :
and I will establish his kingdom. lie shall build a house
for my name, and I will establish the throne of his king-
dom for ever." Also I Chron. xxii. 10..Isa. ix. 6, 7. g 6f
the increase of his government there shall be no end--
upon the throne of David and his kingdom-to establish
it-from henceforth even for ever." Psnl. ex. 11 Thou
art a priest for ever after the order of llvlelchizedec." Dan.
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
this shall not be the same. Exalt him that is low; abase hip that is high." Ps. ii. 11 Ile kings of the earth set themselves; the rulers take counsel together, saying, Let us break their bands, &c.-Yet have I set my king on my holy hill of Zion." Ps. cxviii. 22. 11 The stone which the builders refused, the same is become the head of the comer." And particularly this is agreeable to what the prophet Daniel says of tfie reign ci antichrist, that shall precede the glorious day of the Messiah's reign, who shall set up himself in the room of the Most High, as law-giver in his room, shall think to change times and laws, whose reign shall continue till the Messiah comes to overthrow it, =ing up his glorious kingdom. WhenDavidun-de he opposition that was made to Solomon's reie~n by him that had usurped the kingdom, and by the rufe"~ and great men that were with him, he solern~ly declares his firm and immutable purpose and decree of exalting Solomon that day to his throne which was in mount Zion. I Kings i. 29, 30. agreeable to Ps. ii. 11 The kin of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counseigtogether a. inst the Lord and against his anointed ; &-tying, Let us hol ak their bands--yet have I set my King on my hag hill of Zion. I will declare the decree. The Lord
said unto me, '11hou art my Son, this day have I be-
gotten thee." Solomon was mide king b7 a most solemn
oath of his father, that he declares he will not repent of,
but fulfil. I Kings xxix. 30. 11 And the king sware, and
said, As the Lord liveth, that hath redeemed my soul out
of all distress, even as I sware unto thee by the Lord God
of Israel, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall rei n
after me, and he shall sit upon my throne in my Steal;
even so will I certainly do this day." Agreeable to Ps.
ex. 4. "The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou
art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedec."
When the time came for Solomon to be proclaimed king,
all the opposition and interest of his competitors, though
ver - y great, and of great men, (and though they seem-
ed to have made their part strong, and to have got the day,)
all vanished away as it were of itself, and came to nothing
at once, like a dream when one awakes; agreeably to Ps.
ii. "The Lord shall laugh at them-Yet have r set my
king on my holy hill of Zion." Isa. xxix. 7, 8. 11 And
the multituile of all the nations that fight against Ariel, even
all that fight against her and her munition, shall be as a
dream of a night vision. It shall be even -.is when a hungry
man dreameth, and behold, he eateth ; and he awaketh,
and his soul is empty," &c. Ps. Nviii. 1, 2 . 11 Let God
arise ; let his enemies be scattered ; let them also that hate
him flee before him, as smoke is driven away, as wax
melteth before the fire." Isa. Ixiv. 1. 11 Oh that thou
wouldest rend the heavens, that thou wouldest come down,
that the mountains might flow down at thy presence."
Dan. ii. 34, 35. "Thou sawest till that a stone was cut
out without hands, which smote the image-then was
the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold broken
0 pieces and became like the chaff of the summer thresh-
i 4 fi-z and the wind carried them away." The fol-
lowers of Adonijah were dispersed without any battle,
only by what they heard and saw of what David had done
in exafting Solomon, and the manner in which he was in-
troduced and instated in the kingdom; which is agree-
able to Ps. x1viii. 4-6. 11 For In, the kings were assem-
bled ; they passed by together ; they saw it, and so they
marvelled. They were troubled, and hasted away. Fear
took hold upon ihem there, and pain as of a woman in
travail." After David had declared the decree, that Solo-
man should be king in Zion, it was dangerous for the
princes and rulers not to submit themselves to Solomon,
and behave with suitable respect to him, lest he should he
angry, and they should perish. Ps. ii. Solomon, in his
way to the throne, is made as it were to drink of the brook.
He first descended from the height of mount Zion down
into a low valley without the city, to the water-course of
Gihon. There he had a baptism to be baptized with. And
then he ascended into the state and majesty of a king.
Agreeable to Psalm ex. 11 He shall drink of the brook in
the way, therefore shall he lift up the head :" and the
many prophecies that speak of his humiliation, and suffer-
ings, and glorious exaltation consequent thereon. Solomon,
after he had descended into the valley to the waters of
Gilion, ascended up into the height of Zion in a manner resembling the ascension of the Messiah, very much after the same manner that the ascension of the aik resembled it. For he went up with the sound of the trumpet, all the people following him with songs, and instruments of music, and hosannas, rejoicing with great joy, so that the earth rent again. I Kings i. 39,40. Agreeable to Psalm ]xviii. and x1vii. 5. and xxiv. That the peaceful, hap y, and glo~ rious reign of Solomon should be introduc2 with such extraordinary joy, shouting, songs, and instruments of music in Zion, is agreeable to what is often foretold concerning the introduction of the glorious day of the Messiah's reien. Zech. ix. 9. 11 It 'oice greatly, 0
Ce daughter of Zion ; shout, 0 daughter oi Jerusalem; be-hold, thy King cometh unto thee." To the like purpose, chap. ii: 10. Isaiah A. 9. and Iii. 7-9. Psalm xcvi. 10, &c. 11 Say among the beathen, the Lord reigneth; the world also shall be established, that it shall not be moved. Ile shall judge the peoEle righteously. Let the heavens
* ice, and let the eart be glad. Let the sea roar and 2e0fulness thereof Let the field be joyful and all that is therein. Then shall all the trees of the wood re ' ce be-
'oi fore the Lord:" and Psal. xcvii. 1, 8, 12. xcvii 4. to the end, and c. 1, 2. Isaiah xlv. 23. x1ix. 13. Isaiah Iv. 12. and many other places. The great prosperity of Israel through the reign of Solomon was introduc6d with the sound of the trumpet. I Kings i. 34, 39. 1 Cbron. xxix. 21, 22. Agreeable to Isaiah xxvii. 13. 11 Ile great trum-pet shall be blown," &-c. Solomon was the Messimli or anointed in an eminent manner. Ile was anointed by the special direction both of David and of Nathan the prophet. 1 Kings i. 11, 34, 39. He was anointed with God's holy anointing oil out of the tabernacle, verse 39. not only was Solomon anointed of God, but he was anointed also by the pen Ile. They made him king over them by their own act, 1 K(n. xxix. 22. agreeable to Hos. i. 11. 11 Then shall the children of Judah, and the children of Israel, be
thered together, and appoint over them one head ; and t7ley shall come up out of the land. For great shall be the day of Jezreel." David made Solomon to ride on his own mule, and he sat on his father's throne, while David was yet living, and was king. His father solemnly invested him with his kingly authority; and himself gives him his.charge. I Kingn i. 30, 33,35,47,48. ii. 12. 1 Chron. xxviii. XXIX. This is agreeable to the account that is given of God the Father's investing the Messiah with his dominion in Dan. vii. Seealso Zech. vi. 12,13. and Ezek. xlvi. 1, 2. with xliv. 2. Solomon is spoken of as not only sitting on the throne of his father David; but also as sitting on God's throne, and reigning in some respect in God's stead, as his vicegerent. I Chron - xxviii. 5. The Lora hath chosen Solomon my son, to Sit UPOD the throne of the kingdom (if the Lord-over Israel." Cha~ xxxix. 23. 11 Then Solomon sat upon the throne-of tb ord as king in stead of David his father." 2 Chron. ix. 8. 44 Blessed be the Lord thy God, which delighted in thee, to seat thee on his throne, to be king for the Lord thy God." So the rophecies do represent the Messiah, as sitting on the Xrone of David his father. Isa. ix. 7.
ndon his kingdom to order
it," &c. Jer. xxxiii, 17, 21. A also as sitting on the
throne of God. Zech. vi. 13. 1 He shall build the temple
of the Lord, and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and
rule upon his throne. " Also Dan. vii. 13, 14. and Psal.
ii. 11 1 have set m , y king upon m.y hol h 11 of Zion." Psal.
ex. 11 Sit thou on n I make thine enemies
thy footstool." Psal.'xl~'. 6. 11 Thy throne, 0 God, is for
ever." Ile beginnin~ of Solomon's reign was a remark-
able time of vengeaw~e on the wicked, and such as had
been opposers or false friends of David and Solomon.
Many such were then cut off. 1 Kings ii. So that it was
as it were the righteous only that delighted themselves in
that abundance of peace, and partook of the glory, pros-
perity, and triumph of God's people, that was enjoyed in
this reign, which is agreeable to Isa. 1xi. 2. " To proclaim
the acceptable year oT the Lord, and the day of vengeance
of our God:" 1xv. 12, &c.* 11 Therefore will I number you
to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter-
my servants shall eat; but ye shall be hungry," &c.
Chap. lxvi. 14-16. 11 And the band of the Lord shall be
known towards his servants, and his indignation towards
his enemies. For behold, the Lord will come with fire and with his chariots, like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury-and the slain of the Lord shall be many." I sa. xxxiii. 14, &c. "The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearful-ness hath su ed the hyj)ocrite. He that walketh righteously-Zisdwell on high-thine eye shall see the kin * h' bert t " at. iv. 1 3. , All'the proud, yea, all =t d1os wicke'd-ly, Mshall be as stubble. But unto y?u that fear my name, shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings. And ye shall tread down the wicked." Ezek. xx. 38. 11 And I will purge out from among you the rebels, and them that transgress against me." Psal. xxxvii. 9-11. 11 For evil-doers shall be cut off: but those that wait upon the Lord, shall inherit the earth. For yet a little while, and the wicked shall not be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be. But the meek shall inherit the earth, and del lit themselves in the abundance of peace." And many otger places. Solomon did not immediately cut off thesA~ rebels and transgressors; but gave them 0 rtunity to enjoy the blessings of his reign with others, Ztrey would turn from their evil way, and submit to him, and approve themselves worthy men and faithful subjects. But when they went on still in their transgressions he cut them off. Agreeable to what is foretold should be at the introduction of the glory of the Messiah's reign, in Psal. 1xviii. 18, &c. 11 Thou hast ascended on high-thou hast received gifts for men, yea, for the rebellious also, that the Lord God might dwell among them. Blessed be the Lord, who daily loaded us with his benefits. But God shall wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of such an one as goeth on still in his trespasses." Solomon was a man of great and unj,Qralleled wisdom. This is agreeable to Isa. ix. 6. 11 11 is name shall he called Wonderful, Counsellor." xi: ~, 3. 11 The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and of might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord ; and shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord." Zech. iii. 9. 11 Upon one stone shall be seven eyes." See also Isa. xIi. two last verses, with xIii. 1. God was with Solomon and greatly established his throne. 1 Kingsii.12. 2Chron.i.i.agreeabletolsa.ix.7,9. 11 Upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to order it and to establish it in henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts shall do this." Psal. lxxxix. 2, 3. 11 Mercy shall he build up for ever: ft faithfulness wilt thou establish in the very heavens. I ave made a covenant with my chosen." 20, 2 1. "With my holy oil have I anointed him, with whom my hand shall be estab-lished ; mine arm also shall strength~n him." 36, 37. " His throne shall endure as the sun before me : it shall he established fbr ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven." Psal. ii. throughout. Psal. xIv. 11 Thy throne, 0 God, is for ever and ever." Psal. cx. 11 Sit thou at my right hand,-the Lord hath sworn," &c. Isa. x1ii. 1, 4. " Behold my servant whom I uphold--he shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth, and the isles shall wait for his law." And xlix. 8. 11 1 have helped thee, and I will preserve thee, to establish the earth." Ile Lord magnified Solomon exceedingly, and b- -d upon him such royal majesty as had not been on any before him in Israel. I Chron. xxix. 23. 2 Chron. i. I.; agreeable to Psal. Av. 2, &c. 11 Thou art fairer than the children of men-gird thy sword upon thy thigh, 0 most Mighty, with thy glory and thy majest7." Ver. 6.
Thy throne, 0 God, is for ever and ever! Isa. ix. 6. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and thegovernment shall be u on his shoulder; and his name sha be called, Wonderfur., Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." Solomon married Pharaoh's daughter, a stranger; a
igereeab'y to Psal. xIv. 10. "Hearken, 0 daughter, consi er, an incline thine ear; for t also thine own pen le," &c. 11 She was the daughter oFa king ;" agreeably to Wal. x1v. 13. 11 The King's daughter," &c. a Gentile, agreeably to Hos. ii. 16. 99 Thou shalt call me Ishi," (i. e. my husband.) Ver. 19, 20. 11 And I will betroth thee unto me." Ver. 23. 11 And I will have mercy upon her that hath not obtained mercy; and I will sa unto them which were not my people, Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
with innumerable other prophecies of the calling of the
Gentiles, She was an Egyptian, and Solomon made
affinity with Pharaoh, king of Egypt. Agreeably to Psal.
lxxxvii. 4. 11 1 will make mention of Rabab andBabylon
to them that know me." Psal. 1xviii. 31. 11 Princes shall
come out of Egypt." Isa. xix. 18, to the end. 11 In that
day shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak the lan-
f Canaan--and there shall be an altar unto the
VoTion the midst of the land of Egypt-and the Lord
shall be kiiown unto Fgy t: and the Egyptians shall
know the Lord--and the Egyptians shall serve the Assy-
rians-the Lord of hosts iliall bless, saying, Blessed
shall be Egypt my people." Pharaoh's dau ter being an
Egyptian, was of a swarthy complexion; agreeably to
Cant. i. 5. 11 1 am black, but comely, 0 ye daughteis of
Jerusalem." We read of no person that ever offered such
great sacrifices as Solomon did. 1 Kings iii. 4, and viii. 5.
63, 64. 1 Kings ix. 25. This is agreeable to what the
proghecies represent of the Messiah, as the great priest of
Go , who by the sacrifices he should offer, should per-
fectly satisfy divine justice, and truly procure the favour
of God fo: his people; his sacrifices being herein of
qeater value than thousands of rams and ten thousands of
rivers of' oil, and all the beasts of the field. Solomon
built the temple; agreeably to Zech. vi. 12, 13. He
made the dwelling-pFace of God, that before was only a
movable tent, to become a stable building, built on a
rock or everlasting mountain; agreeably to Isa. xxxiii.
20. 11 Look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities. Thine
eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle
that shall not be taken down : not one of the stakes
thereof shall ever be removed ; neither shall any of the
cords thereof be broken." Chap. xxviii. 16, 17. "'Behold,
I lay in Zion for a foundalion a stone, a tried stone, a
precious comer stone, a sure foundation,- dgment also
will lay to the line, and righteousnes! to tVe plummet."
Ezek. xxxvii. 26. 11 Moreover I will make a covenant of
peace with them : it shall be an everlasting covenant with
ttmm ; and I will place them and multiply them, and will
set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore," taken
together with th ro het' I d cription of that sanctuary
in the fortieth an owing chapters. Solomon's temple
and his other buildings in Jerusalem were exceeding
stately and magnificent, so that he vastly increased the
beauty and glor ' y of the city. Isa. 1. 13. "1 The glory of
Lebanon shall come unto thee. Ile fir-tree, the pme-
tree, and the box-tree together, to beautify the place ot my
sanctuary: and I will make the place of my feet glorious."
Ver. 15. 11 1 will make thee an eternal excellency." ' Chap.
liv. 11, 12. 11 Behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colours,
and lay 1hy foundations with sapphires ; and I will make
th ' v windows of agates and the gates of carbuncles, and all
thy borders of pleasant stones." The temple that Solo-
mon built was exceeding magnifical of fame and of glory
throughout all lands. 1 Chron. xxii. 5.; agreeabl t
Isa. ii. 2. 11 And it shall come to pass in the last Yay'2, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills, and all nations shall flow into it." See also Mic. iv. 1, 2. Isa. Ix. at the beginning. 11 Arise, shine; for thy light is come-the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee; and the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising." Solomon enlarged the place of sacrificing, so that sacrifices were not only offered on the altar, but all the middle part of the court was made use of for that end, by reason of the multitude of worshippers and the abun-dance of sacrifices. I Kings viii. 64. 2 Chron. vii. 7. which is agreeable to Jer. iii. 16, 17. 11 And it shall come to s, when ye be multiplied and increased in the land in gosse days, saith the Lord, they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the Lord," &c~at that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord, and all na tions shall be gathered unto the name of the Lord unto Jerusalem." a]. i. 10, 11. 11 From the rising of the sun unto the going down of the same, my mine shall be great among the Gentiles, and in every pface incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering: "---and man
other places. Solomon was a gre2t intercessor for IsmeT, and by his intercession he obtained that God should for-
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
give their sins, and hear their pra ers, and pity them under their calamities, and deliver gem from their ene-mies, and fulfil his promises, and supp all their necessi-ties, that they might find mercy and ~nd race to bel
in a time of need, and that Goa might dwefil with Ismet and take up his abode amonl~ them, as their king, saviour, and father. (2 Kings viii. 2 Chron. vi.) By his intercession and prayer he brought fire down from heaven, to consume their sacrifices; and obtained that God should come down in a cloud of glory to fill his temple. 2 Chron. vii. 1-3. 1 Kings viii. 54. His intercession was as it were con-tinual, as though he ever lived to make intercession for his people, that they might obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need. See those remarKable words, 1 Kings viii. 59. Solomon was not only an intercessor for Israel, but for the stranger that was not of I srael, but came out of a far country for God's name sake, when he should hear of his t name and great salvation. I Kings viii. 41-43. 2 C rron. vi. 32, 33. which is agreeable to what the r -pbecies do abundantly represent of the joint intexest Itboe Gentiles in the utmost ends of the earth, with Israel in the Messiah, through hearing his great name, and the report of his salvation. Solomon prayed for all the people of the earth that they might know the true God. 1 Kings viii. 60. So the prophecies do abundantly show, that the Messiah should actually obtain this benefit for all nations of the world. Solomon did the part of a Kriest ill blessing the congregation. I Kings viii. 14. 2 C ron. vi. 3. with Numb. vi. 23. which is agreeable to the prophe-cies which do retresent the Messiah zu a priest, and also to Gen. xxii. 18. In thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed." To.the like purpose, chap. xii. 3. xviii. 18. and xxvi. 4. and Psal. lxxii. 17. "And men shall be blessed in him." Solomon made a covenant with the king of Tyre, and the servants of the king of Tyre were associated with the servants of Solomon in the building of the temple : which is agreeable to the prophecies of the Messiah's being a light to the Gentiles and covenant of the people; and the Gentiles being associated with the Jews and becoming one people witIT them; and their coming and building in the temple of the Lord. Zecb. vi. 15. 1 sa. Ix. 10. 11 And the sons of strangers shall build up th
walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee." AZ particularly the proyhecies that represent that the nation in the islands and en S of the earth and maritime places, the chief nations for arts, wealth, merchandise, and seafaring, should be brought into the kingdom of the Messiah, bringing their silver and gold to the name of the Lord, &c. And that the Tvrians in particular should be the people of the Messiah. Solomon brought the glory of' Lebanon, or the best and fairest of its growth, to build the temple of God; agreeably to Isa. Ix. 13. Solomon in an eminent
manner exe , ted judgment and Justice. 1 Kings iii. 11, 28. and x. 9, 18. His throne of judgment was of ivory, a white, pure' and precious substance, used in the Old Tes-tament as a symbol of purity and righteousness. This is agreeable to innumerable priophecies of the Messiah. It was in Solomon's time that God first gave his people Israel fully ~o enjoy that rest in Canaan, that he had pro-mised them in the time ofMoses; and Solomon's rest was g!orious. 1 Kings v. 4. 11 But now the Lord my God hath given me rest on every side." And chap. viii. 56. " Blessed be the Lord God, that bath given rest unto his people Israel ; according to all that he promised, there bath not failed one word of all his good promise, which he promised by the hand of Moses his servant." This is agreeable to Isa. xi. 10. 11 And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people : to it shall the Gentiles seek ; and his rest shall be glorious." Jer. xxx. 10. 11 So I will save thee from afar, and thy seed from the land of their captivity ; and Jacob shall return and be in rest and quiet, and none shall make him afraid." Isa. xxxii. 20. 11 Look upon Zion. the city of our so-lemnities. Thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a'quiet habita-tion, a tabernacle that shall not be taken down." And xxxii. 17, 18. 11 And the work of righteousness shall be peace, and the effect of righteousness, quietness and assurance for ever. And my people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting-places." Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every
man under his own vine, and under his own fig-tree, fiom
Dan even to Beersheba, all the days of Solomon. I Kings
iv. 25.; agreeable to Mic. iv. 4. 11 But they shall sit every
man under, his vine and under his fig-tree, and none shall
make them afi-aid." Zech. iii. 10. 11 In that day, saith the
Lord of hosts, ye shall call every man his neighbour under
his vine, and under his fig-tiee." In Solomon's reign
there were neither adversary nor evil occurrent. So ac-
cording to the prophecies in the Messiah's times there
shall be no adversary. Isa. xxv. 5. 11 Thou shalt bring
down the noise of strangers as the beat in a dry place,
even the heat with the shadow of a cloud; the branch of
the terrible ones shall be brought low." Isa. liv. 14. 11 In
righteousness shalt thou be established. Thou shalt be
far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear; and from
terror, for it shall not come near thee." And xlix. 19.
11 They that swallowed thee up shall be far away." Isa.
Ix. 13. 11 Violence shall no more be heard in thy land,
wasting nor destruction within thy borders." And xi. 13.
11 Ile adversaries of Judah shall be cut off." So Ezek.
xxxvi. 12, 13. and many other places. So b the prophe-
cies of the Messiah's times, there should not te evil occur-
rent. Isa. xxv. 8. 11 lie will wipe away tears from off all
faces.' And xxxv. 10. Sorrow and sighing shall flee
away. Isa. xxxv. 24. And the inhabitant shall not
~ay, I am sick." Isa. 1xv. 19. 11 And the voice of weep-
ing shall no more be heard in her, nor the voice of crying."
Ver. 21. 11 And they shall build houses and inhabit them,
and thev shall plant vineyards and eat the fruit of them."
Zech. viii. 12. 11 The seea shall be prosperous; the vine
shall give her fruit; and the ground shall give her in-
crease; and the heavens shall give their dew; and I will
cause the remnant of this people to possess all these
things;" and many other places. In Solomon's time
Israel were possessed of great riches, silver, and gold, and
other precious things in vast abundance. 1 Kings x. 2 1 -
23, 27. agreeable to Isa. Ix. 5. 11 The abundance of the sea
shall be converted unto thee. Ile forces (or wealth) of
the Gentiles shall come unto thee." Ver. 6. 11 Ile multi-
tude of camels shall cover thee. The dromedaries of
Midian and Ephah they shall bring gold." Ver. 9. 11 The
ships of Tarshish shall bring their silver and their gold."
Ver. 11. 11 Thy gates shall be open continually, they shall
Dot be shut day nor night; that men may bring unto thee
the forces (or N~,ealth) of the Gentiles." Ver. 17. 11 For
brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver,
and for wood brass, and for stones iron." Ixi. 6. 11 Ye
shall eat the riches of the G entiles, and in their glory shall
ye boast yourselves." Ixvi. 11, 12. 11 That ye may milk
out and. be delighted with the abundance of her glory.
For thus saith the Lord, Behold, I yvill extend peace in
her like a river, and the glor~ of the Gentiles like a flowing
stream; then shall ye suck, &c. and many other places.
Solomon's reign was a time of great feasting and rejoicing
in Israel. I ~irlgS iv. 20-22, 23. viii. 65. an x. 5.
agreeable to Isa. xxv. 6. 11 And in this mountain shall the
Lord of hosts make unto all people a feast of fit things, a
feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of
wines on the lees well refined." Isa. 1xv. 13, 14. , Be-
bold, my servants shall eat-my servants shall drink-mv
servants shall rejoice-my servants shall sing for joy of
heart." Ver. 18. 11 Behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing
and her people a joy." Jer. xxxi. 12. 11 Therefore shall ye
come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together
to the goodness of the Lord, for wheat, and for wine, and
for oil, and for the young of the flock, and of the herd, and
their soul shall be as a watered garden, and they shall not
som)w any more at all . " Zech. viii. 19. 11 Th u s saith the
Lord of hosts, The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of
the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the
tenth shall be to the house of.ludah joy, and gladness, and
cheerful feasts." Chap. ix. 15. 11 They shall drink and
make a noise as through wine, and the ' v shall be filled like
bowls and as tl~e corners of the altar." Also Isa. xxxv.
1, 2, 10. x1iv. 23. xlix. 13. and Ixi. 3. and. li. 11. and
very many other places.
There was a vast increase of God's people Israel in
Solomon's days, so that they were as the sand of the sea,
and were so man ' v that lh~v could not be nl)Tnbered or
counted for multitude. 1 Rings iii. 8. iv. 20. The servants
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
of Solomon and those that stood continually before him, were pronounced happy, eminently and remarkably so. 1 Kings x. 8. 11 Happy are these thy men; h%py are*these thy servants, which stand continually before t ee, and that hear thy wisdom." Agreeable to Psal. lxxii. 17. 1 And man shall be blessed in him." Isa. xxxiii. 17. 11 Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty." Isa. ii. 5. 11 0 house of Jacob, come ye, let us walk in the light of the Lord." In Solomon's reign the remnant of the heathen were made bondmen, but the Israelites were for noble employments. I Kings ix. 21, 22. Agreeable to Isa. lxi. 5, 6. 11 And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the alien shall be your ploughmen and your vine-dressers. But ve shall be! n~med the priests of the' Lord : men shall call 3-ou the ministers of our God. Ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in theirglory shall ye boast yourselves. Solomon made cedars to be as the sycamore-tr~es that are in the vale for abundance." Agreeable to Isa. I v. 13. 11 In-stead of the thorn shall come up the fir-tree, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle-tree, and it shall be to the Lord for a name, tor an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off." Chap. x1i. 19. 11 1 will plant in the wil-derness the cedar, the shittah-tree, and the myrtle and the oil-tree. I will set up in the desert the fir-tree, and the
' he and the box-tree together." Isa. xxxv. 1, 2. "' The ~ese`it shall rejoice and blossom as the rose. It shall blos-som abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing. The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excel-lency of'Carmel and Sharon." In Solomon's days, the house of the Lord was in a remarkable manner filled with glory. I Kings viii. 10, 11. 2 Chron. v. 13, 14. and vii. 1, 2. ; agreeable to [lag. ii. 7. In Solomon's days, a great and extraordinarv feast of tabernacles was kept. I ftings
the viii. 65. 2 Chron. v. 3. and vii. 8-10. It was by greatest feast of tabernacles that ever was kept in Israel. This is agreeable to Zech. xiv. 16-19. The blessings of Solomon's reign were the fruit of God's everlasting love to Israel. I Kings x. 9. 11 Because the Lord loved israel for ever, therefore made he the king to do judgment and justice." Jer. xxxi. 3. 11 1 have loved thee with an ever-lasting love ; therefore with loving-kindness have I drawn thee." Solomon reigned from the river Euphrates to the ends of the earth, even flie uttermost part of the land next to the great sea, as it was called. I Kings iv. 21. agree-able to Psal. Ixxii. 8. and Zech. ix. 10. Solomon had many chariots. I Kings iv. 26. and x. 26. ~ This is agree-able to Psal. [xviii. 18. and Dan. vii. 10. The exceeding greatness of Solomon's court, the vast number of his ser-vants, ministers, and attendants, which may be learned from I King, iv. 1-19, 22, 23. Chap. ix. 22. 2 Chi-on. viii. 9, 10. is agreeable to Psal. 1xviii. 18. and Dan. x. 13, 21. and xii. I - compared with Dan. vii. 10. Other kings and nations brought presents unto Solomon. 1 Kings iv. 21. ix. 14. and x. 25. Psal. 1xviii. 29. " Because of th v temple at Jerusalem, kings shall bring presents unto thee." Psal. lxxii. 10. and xI v. 12. The queen of Sheba came to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and to be instructed by him, and brought great presents, and particularly gold and spices. I Kings x. 2, 10. This is agreeable to fsa. Ix. 6. 11 All they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense, and they shall show forth ihe praises of the I,ord." Psal. lxxii. 9, 10. 11 The kings of Sheba arid Seba. shall offer gifts." Ver. 15. "To him shall be given of the gold of Sheba."
The queen of Sheba came bringing her presents on a multitude of camels. 1 Kings x. 2. 11 And she came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bare spices and veU much gold;" agreeable to Isa. Ix. 6. 11 The multitude of camels shall cover thee: the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah, all they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense." Solomon extended h s royal bounty to the queen of Sheba, and gave her all her desire. Agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the blessings and kvour of the Messiah to be extended to the Gentiles, and his granting the requests of those that look to him from the ends of the earth. Israel, in Solo-mon's time, was enriched and adomed with the gold of Ophir, especially they of Solomon's courts, and of his own family: agreeably to Psal. Av. 9. 11 On thy right hand did stand the queerf in' gold of Ophir." - All the kings and
.merchants of Arabia brought presents of gold and spices
unto Solomon. I Kings x. 14, 15. This is agreeable to
Isa. xIv. 14. 11 The merchandise of Ethiopia shall come
over to thee." Zeph. iii. 10. 11 From beyond the rivers of
Ethiopia my suppliants." Psal. lxriii. 31. 11 Ethiopia
shall soon stretch out her hands to God." Psal. lxxii. 9,
10. 11 They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before
bim-the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts."
Isa. Ix. 6. 11 The multitude of camels shall cover thee.
The dromedaries of Rlidian and Ephah, all they from
Sheba shall come ; they shall bring gold and incense."
Isa. x1ii. 11. 1 Let the wilderness and the cities thereof
lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit.
Let the inhabitants of the rock sing." Chap. Ix. 7. 11 All
the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee :
the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee." The ships
of Tarshish came bringing gold and silver, and precious
stones, and other precious things to Solomon; 1 Kings
viii. 26, to the end, ix. 10, 11.; and Solomon improved
what they brought to adorn the temple, ver. 12. agreeable
to Psal. ixxii. 10. 11 The kin-s of Tarshish and of the isles
shall bring presents." Isa. Ix-5. 11 Theabundance of the sea
shall be converted unto thee-,, Isa-lx-9. "Surely the isles
shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first. Their
silver and their gold with them to the name of the Lord
th , v God, and to the Ilol ' v One of Israel ; because he bath
glorified thee." There came of all people from all kings
of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and brought
presents of gold, silver, spices, &c. 1 Kings iv. 34. " And
there came of all people to hear the wisdom of Solomon,
from all kings of the earth which had heard of his wisdom."
2 Chron. ix. 23, 24. 11 And all the kings of the earth sought
the presence of Solomon, to hear his wisdom, that God had
put in his heart ; and they brought every man his present,
vessels of silver and vessels of gold, and raiment, harness
and spices, horses and mules, a rate year by year." Thus
all kings did as it were bow down unto Solomon. Solo-
mon was a king of kings. 2 Chron. ix. 26. "And he
reigned over all the kings from the river even unto the land
of the Philistines, and to the border of Egypt."
The labour of Egypt was brought over to Israel in
Solomon's days. I Kings x. 28. " And Solomon had
horses brought out of Egypt and linen vain. The king's
merchants received the linen yarn at ~ price;" which is
agreeable to Isa. xIv. 14. 11 The labour o Egypt and the
merchandise of Ethiopia-shall come over unto thee."
From that 1 K . np x. 28. it is manifest that fine linen
was very ~nuchlu'sed for clothing in Solomon's days, at
least by Solo mon's court, which is a fit emblem of spi-
ritual 'purity and righteousness, and was manifestly used
as such bygiests and princes, and was abundantly used
as such in e service of the sanctuary. This is agreeable
to what is often spoken in the prophets of the extraordi-
nary holiness and puiitv of the church in the Messiah's
day~s, and to Isa. Iii. '1. 11 Awake, awake, put on thy
strength, 0 Zion ; put on th * v beautiful garments, 0 Jeru-
salem, the holy city ; for henceforth there shall no more
come unto thee the uncircumcised and the unclean."
Solomon spake many proverbs, or parables, or dark say-
ings, 1 Kings iv. 32. 11 And he spake three thousand pro-
verbs." This is agreeable to what the prophets represent
concerning the Messiah, as an eminent teacher; and what
may be learned from them of the wonderful and mysteri-
ous things he should teach in his doctrine. Solomon was,
as Joseghcaarnevealer of secrets. 1 Kin The qu,en
of She e to rove Solomon vvitts hard questions
and Solomon told er all her questions ; there was not any thing hid from the king which he told her not." This is agreeable to what the prophecies say of the Messiah's being a great teacher, and of the vast increase of' light and knowledge that shall be by him. Solomon made a great number of songs. I Kin~s iv. 32. 11 His songs were a thousand and ve." This is agreeable to innumerable prophecies which represent the Messiah's times as times of extraordinary singing and melody, wherein God's peo-ple and all the world should employ themselves in joyful songs of praise; yea, wherein all creatures, the mountains, rocks, trees, the sea, the heavens and the earth, should break forth into singing. Solomon had a vast multitude of wives and concubines, fitly representing the vast num-
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
ber of saints in the Messiah's times, who are members of the church that is so often spoken of as the Messiah's wife.
I shall mention but one thing more under this head of
things that we have an account of in the history of the
Old Testament, remarkably agreeint with thinys said in
prophecies relating to the Messiah's ingdona ana redemp-
tion ; and that is, the return of the Jews firom the Babylon-
ish captivity. It is manifest that the great redemption of
Messiah is abundantly represented by a redemption of
Israel from captivity and bondage under the hand of their
enemies in strange and far distant lands, from the north
coiintry, and their return to their own land, and rebuilding
Jerusalem and the cities of Israel, and repairing the old
wastes ; in places too many to be enumerated. This re-
demption of the Jews was accompanied with a great de-
struction of those mighty and proud enemies, that had
carried them captive, th~t were stronger than they, God
pleading their cause and revenging their quarrel on the
greatest empire in the world, as it were causing them to
tread down the loftiest city, the highest walls and towers
in the world, destro * ying tfieir enemies with a great slaugh-
ter, and dreadful havock of their enemies ; agreeable to
Hag. ii. 22. 11 And I will overthrow the throne of king-
doZ, and I will destroy the strength of the kinzdoms of
the heathen." Isa. xxvi. 5, 6. 11 For he bringeth down
them that dwell on high, the lofty city he laveth it low;
be layeth it low even tothe ground : he bringeth it even
to the dust : the foot treadeth it down, even the feet of the
poor and the steps of the needy." Chap. xxv. 12. 11 And
the fortress of the high fort or thy walls shall he bring
down, lay low and bring to the ground, even to the dust."
Chap. xxxii. 19. 11 When it shall ~mil, coming down on
the orest, and the city shall be low in a low lace 11
shall be utterly abased. Chap. xxx. 25. 11 And Ere s'haoirl be upon every high mountain and upon every high hill, rivers and streams of water, in the day of the great slaugh-ter, when the towers fall." See also I sa. xxxiv. 1-8. and Joel iii. 9-17. Isa. ii. 10, to the end, and many other places. This redemption of the Jews was attended with the final and everlasting destruction of Babylon, that great enemy of the Jewish church, that had oppressed her and
carried her t, Tbi is agreeable to prophecies of the
Messiah releurp Is.. xxxix. 10, to the end, and
x1i. 11, 12. and x1iii. 17. Dan. ii. 35. Obad. 10, 17, 18,
and many other places. The temple of Jerusalem was
rebuilt b; the countenance and authority of Gentile kings.
Ezra i. 2, &c. Chap. vi. 6-15. and vii. 11, &c. Neh. ii.
7-9. ; agreeable to Isa. xlix. 23. 11 And kings shall be
thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers."
It seems to be intimated that the queeii of Persia, as well
as the king, favoured the Jews, and promoted the restoring
of their state, in Neh. ii. 6. The temple and city were re-
built very much at the charge of Gentile kings and peo-
ple, who offered silver and gold. Ezra i. 4-8. and vi. 8.
and vii. 15-23. Neh. ii. 7-9. This is agreeable to many
places mentioned in the preceding section concerning
Solomon's reign. At the time of this restoration of the
Jews, strangers or Gentiles, and their princes, assisted with
sacrifices for the house of God . Ezra i. 4, 6. vi. 9. and
vii. 17. This is agreeable to Psal. xxii. 29. " All they
that be fat upon the earth shall eat and worship." Isa.
xlix. 7. Kings shall see and arise; princes also shall
worshi because of the Lord that is faithful, and the Holy
IT Israel, and he shall choose thee." Isa. Ix. 6, 7.
11 The multitude of camels shall cover thee ; the drome-
daries of Midian, &c. They shall bring gold, incense.
All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered unto thee. 'The
rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee. They shall
come up with acceptance on mine altar, and I will glorify
the house of my glory." Gold, and silver, and sacrifices,
and incense were brought to the new temple at Jerusalem,
especially from the nations on this side the river Eu-
phrates. Ezra. i. 4, 6. Chap. vi. G-10. Chap. vii. 16-
18, 21-23. Neh. ii. 7-9. Which include Tyre and
Ethiopia Midian and E hah, Kedar, Nebaiotb, and the
countries' of Arabia, whil are spoken of in prophecies
that have been already mentioned in this and the foregoing
section, as bringing presents, offering gifts, gold, incense,
and sacrifices. Ibe Jews at their return ont of Bab ' ylon,
were redeemed without money. Isa. x1v. 13. 11 lie shall
We often read of praying, fasting, confessing of sin, their
own sins, and the sins of their fathers, and w . ng and
mourning for sin, that attended this restoration of eJews.
Dan. ix. 1~19. Ezra viii. 21-23. Chap. ix. throughout,
x. 1-17. Neh. i. 4, &c. iv. 4, 5. ix. throughout. God
gave the Jews remarkable and wonderful protection in
their journey as they were returning from Babylon towards
Jerusalem, and also' in the midst of the great'dangers and
manifold oppositions they passed through, in rebuilding
the temple and cit - Y. Ezra viii. 21-23, 31. v. vi. vii. Neb.
iv. vi. This is agreeable to Jer. xxxi. 8, 9. 11 Behold, I
will bring from the north countT and gather them from
the coasts of the earth --ne s all come with weeping,
and with supplications will 71sead them. I will cause
them to walk by the rivers of waters in a strai lit way
wherein they shall not stumble. For I am a Zther to
Israel, and Ephraim is my first-born." Isa. x1iii. 2.
11 When thou passest throug)i the waters I will be with
thee, and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee;
when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be
burnt, neither shall the flame kindle upon thee." There
was kept an extraordinary feast of tabernacles on occasion
of t his restoration of the ~Jews, the only one that had been
kept according to the law of Moses since the time oi
Joshua, the son of Nun. Neh. viii. 14. This is agreeable
to Zech. xiv. 16-19. After this return from the cap-
tivit the Jews bad extraordinary means of instruction in
the ~aw of God, much greater than they had before. Ezra
vii. 25. Neh. viii. After this, synagogues were set up all
over the land, in each of which was kept a copy of the
law of the prophets, which were read and explained every
sabbath day. And there seems to be a great alteration as
to the frequency of the solemn public worship of God.
Idolatry was utterly abolished among the Jews after their
return 6ona the Babylorrish captivity. This is agreeable
to Isa. ii. 18. 11 The i8ols shall he utterly abolish." Zech.
xiii. 2. 11 And it shall come to 'ass in that day, saitli the
Lord of hosts, that I will cut oWthe names of the idols out
of the land; and they shall no more be remembered."
Hos. ii. 17. 11 For I will take away the names of Baalina
out of her mouth, and the , y shall no more be remembered
b their name." Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 11 Then will I sprinkle
ean water upon you, and ye shall be clean from all your
filthiness, and from all your idols will I cleanse -you."
Chap. xxxv. 23. 11 Neither shall the ' v defile themselves
any more with their idols, nor with their detestable things."
See further, fulfilment of prophecies, § 153.
The agreement between what we are told of Daniel, and Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and what is said in the prophecy of the Messiah and his people, is such as natitrally leads us to su ose the former a designed type of' the latter * Com are %an. iii. and vi. with Isa. xlv'iii. 10. and x1iii. 2. Vsal. xxii. 20, 21. xxxv. 17. Cant. iv. 8.
It is remarkable that it should be so ordered, that so
man v of the chief women that we read of in the history of
the Old Testament, and mothers of so many of the m* ost
eminent persons, should for so long a time be barren, and
that their conception afterwards of those eminent persons
they were the mothers of, should be through God's special
mercy and extraordinary providence ; as in Sarah, Re-
bekab, Rachel, Manoah's wife, and Hannah. It is reason-
able to suppose, that God had something. special in view
in thus remarkably ordering it in so man ' v instances. Con-
sidering this, and also considering the agreement of such
an event with several prophetical representations made of
the church of God in the Messiah's times, there appears a
great deal of reason 10 Suppose the one of these to be de-
signed as a type of the other. Ps. 1xviii. 6. 61 God setteth
the solitary in families." Ps. exiii. 9. 11 He maketh the
barren woman to keep house and to be a joyffil mother of
children." Isa. liv. 1. 11 Sing, 0 barren, and thou that
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
didst not bear; break forth into singing and cry aloud ; thou that didst not travail with child. For more are the children of the desolate, than the children of the married wife, saith the Lord."
With respect to some of tb:ttnncipal persons spoken of in the Old Testament, there i is evidence, that they were tv'es of the Messiah, viz. that the Messiah in the ro-
pI' s called by their names. Thus the MessiaE is
called by the name of Israel. Isa. xlix. 3. 11 And he said
unto me, Thou art my servant, 0 Israel, in whom I will be
glorified." And he is often called in the prophecies by
the name of David. Hos. iii. 5. 11 Afterward sball the
children of Israel return and seek the Lord and David
their king." Jer. xxx. 9. 11 But they shall serve the Lord
their God, and David their king, whom I will raise tip
unto them." Ezek. xxxvi. 24. 11 And I the Lord wili be
their God, and my servant David a prince among them."
Chap. xxxvii. 24, 25. 11 And David my servant shall be
king over them, and they all shall have one shepherd.
The ' y shall also walk 'in my . k d ments and observe my
statutes and do them ; and tiie'vgihall dwell in the land
that I have given unto Jacob m ' v servant, wherein %our
fathers have dwelt, and they shall dwell therein, even they
and their children for ever, and my servant David shal I be
their prince for ever." Ps. lxxxix . 20. 11 1 have found
David mv servant; with my holy oil have I anointed
him." Ver. 27. 11 1 will make him my first-born," &c.
The Messiah is called by the name of Solomon. Cant. iii.
7, 11. viii. 11, 12. So the Messiah's great forerunner is
called by the name of Rjah, Mal. iv.; which argues that
Elijah vi,as a t ' ype of him. The Messiah is called by the
name of Zerubbabel. Hag. ii. 23. 11 In that day, saith the
Lord of hostq, wil I I ta ke thee, 0 Zerubbabel, in , v servant,
the son of Shealtiel, saith the Lord, and I will make thee a
sign 't : for I have chosen thee, saith the Lord of hosts."
And as the Messiah is called by the pro er names of some of the more eminent persons of the 019 Testament, .so some of them are called by names that it is evident by the prophecies do much more eminently and properly be-long to the Messiah. So Joshua is called the shepherd, the stone of Israel ; Gen. xxix. 44. which according to the
Vophecies, are appellations most property belonging to the iessiah. So the name Israel, though it was the proper name of Jacob rather than of the Messiah,.vet its significa-tion, the prince of God, most properly and eminently be-longs to the Messiah, according; to the prophecies. So it is with the name of Abram, high father, and Abraham' the father of a multitude. David, beloved, and Sobanon, peace or peaceable. God also calls Solomon hiq son, an ap llatton which most properly belongs to the Messiah.
x1vi. of the passover, that grand memorial of the bringing
the children of Israel up out of Ev-pt. But it is evi ent
that there will be no such memorial of that event upheld
in the church in the Messiah's times, b ' y Jer. xvi. 14, 15.
and chap. xxiii. 7, 8. Certain officers in the church of the
Messiah are called priests and Levites, Isa. lxi. 6. and Jer.
xxiii. 18. and yet it is plain by the prophecies that the
ceremonial law should be abolished in the Messiah's
times. A work of grace that is wrought on the hearts of
men, is often in the Old Testament called by the name of
circumcision ; and it is evident by the propbicies that this
should in a verv eminent and distinguishing manner be
wrought in the Messiah's times. Something that the Mes-
siah was to be the subject of, is called in the 401 h Psalm by
the name of boring the ear; as was. appointed in the law
concerning the servant that chose his master's service.
Something in the grophecies of the Messiah is called by
the name of oil an anointing, that, it is evident, is not an~
such outward oil or anointing as was appointed in the cere-
monial law. Ps. xlv. 7. Zech. iv. 12-14. Isa. 1xi. 1.
Ps ii. 2, 6. and xx. 6. lxxxix. 20. with cxxxid. So we
fiQ something of a spiritual nature called in the prophe-
cies b * v the name of the golden candlestick that was in the
tabernacle and temple, Zech. iv. Something is called by
the name of that cloud of glory that was above the merci-
seat, Zech. vi. 13. Something is called by the name of
God's dwelling between the cherubims, Ps. xcix. I.; and
something in the Messiah's kingdom is called by the name
of the precious stones that adorn the temple. Compare
Isa. liv. 11, 12. with 1 Chron. xxix. 2. and 2 Chron. iii. 8.
The name of the incense and the names of the sweet spices
that were used in the incense and anointing oil in the
sanctuary, are made use of to signify spiritual things ap-
pertaining to the Messiah and his kingdom, in the book of
the Canticles and Ps. xlv. 8.; and something qpiritual in
that prophecy, Ps. xlv. is called needle-work, the name of
the work of the hangings and garments of the sanctuary.
Exod. xxvi. 36. xxvii. 16. xxxvi. 37. xxxviii. 18. xxviii. 3§.
and xxxix. 29. The garments of the church of the Messiah
are spoken of under the same representation as the curtains
of the tabernacle and beautiful garments of the high priest.
See also Cant. i. 5. Something in the Messiah's king-
dom is called b v the names of the outward ornaments of
the temple, Isa. Ix. 13.
As the people of the Messiah are in the prophecies called
by the name of God , s people Israel, though they should
be chiefly of the Gentiles, so likewise we find the enemies
of the Messiah's people called b ' v the names of the enemies
of Israel; such as Edom, Moab, the children of Ammon,
the Philistines, 4-r. And the places of the abode of those
enemies of the Messiah's people are called by the names
of the countries and cities of God's enemies ; as Egypt,
Babylon, Bozrah, &c. And yet it is evident that those
prophecies cannot have respect to these nations literally, as
hereafter to be such grievous and troublesome neighb~ours
to the Messiah's people, as those nations were to Israel.
For the Messiah's people are to be dispersed all over the
world, and not to dwell in the neighbourhoGd of those
Here it may be observed that the manna is called b v the name of something spiritual. Ps. lxxviii. 25. He had given them the corn of heaven ; man did eat angels' food, which is an argument that it was a type of something spiritual.
It was before observed, that the things of the Messiah are in the rophecies expressly compared to many of the things of tte Old Testament: and I would now observe, that many of then), where they are thus compared, are compared in such a manner as to be at the same time called by the same names. Thus the bondage that the Messiah should redeem his people from is called a lving among the pots ; Psal. 1xviii. 13. And this redem[;tion of the Messiah is expressly called a redeeming them from Egypt. Isa. xi. 11. Zeeli. x. 10. And something that God would do for them, is called his destroying the tongue of the Egyptian sea, and making men go over dry shod ; ver. 15. and dividing the sea and the river. Ze6. x. 10, 11. 11 1 will bring them again also out of the land of Eg%pt, and he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite the waves of the sea, and all the deeps of
the river shall dry up." In Psal. 1xviii. 22. the redemp-tion of the Messiah is called a bringing God's again from the depths of the sea. So somethi should be in the days of the Messiah, is called name of a cloud by day and pillar of fire by night, Itia. iv. Something appertaining to the kingdom of the Messiah is called by the name of the valley of Achor, the place where Achan was slain. Hos. ii. 15. So things appertaining to the destruction of the Messiah's enemies are often called by the names of things made use of in the destruction of the old world, of Sodom and Gomorrah, of the Egyptians, Canaanites, &c. as a flood of waters, min, hail, stoiies, fire and brimstone, a burning tempest, &c. as has been ob-served before. ne redemption of the Messiah is called by the names by which the redemption out of Babylon was called. Jer. xvi. 15. " But the Lord liveth which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of the north." So again xxiii. 8. That b
g the north country, or
land of the north, was an appel ative name by which
Chaldea was called, is very manifest. See Jer. iv. 6. vi.
22. and i. 14. and very mRnv other places. (See the Con-
cordance.) Things that sbill be brought to pass in the
Messiah's days, are called by the name of what literally
came to. pass in the wilderness after the redemFtion of
Egypt; in that in the prophecies, we often read o water 9
in the wilderness, and streams in the desert and in dry
uyf the brook in the the desert in the east of Arabia; Ezek. x1vii. 8. 9, to give drink to God's people, when thirst. Isa. xxxv. 7. x1i. 17, 18. xxxii. 2. x1iii. 19, 20. and Iv. 1.
Sinor corruption, which it is evident by the prophecies
the Messiah comes to heal, is called by the same general
names that belonged to the leprosy, as wounds, and
bruises, and putnif i from the crown of the head
to the soles o t e e t. Something that should be in the
Messiah's times is spoken of under the name of a trum-
pet, an instrument much in use by God's a ~intment, in
the observances of the ceremonial law; sa. xxvii. 13. and something seems to be spoken of under the name of that sound that was made with the trumpets on theiy'oy-ful festivals, especially on the year of ju . sal. lxxxix. 15. Something that should be fulfilled in the Messiah's times, is called by the name of that which the serpent is doomed to, Gen. iii. 14. 11 Dust shalt thou eat." Isa. 1xv. 25. 11 Dust shall be the serpent's meat." Some-thing that should be done by the Messiah is spoken of under the name of the application that was made of water in the legal purifications. Isa. Iii. 15. "So shall he sprinkle many nations." Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26. " Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you." Zech. xiii. 1. 11 In that day there shall be a fount~in opened--for sin and for uncleanness." Compm these with Num. viii. 7 and xix. 13, 18-21.
The congregation in the wilderness were in the form of an army, and an army with banners. So the church of the Messiah is often represented as an army. They are represented as being called forth to war, and enrged.in ag
battle, gloriously conquering and triumphing, in p aces in-numerable, and are spoken of as bein God's goodly horse in the battle, and as a company of %orses in Pharaoh's chariots, and being made as the sword of a mighty man, and being gathered to an ensign, (Isa. xi. 10, 12 standard; Isa. xlix. 22. lix. 19. and Ixii. 10. And a banner given them, Psal. Ix. 4. And setting u banners in God's name, Psal. xx. 5. And being terrible as an army with banners, Cant. vi. 4, 10.
Something in the kingdom of the Messiah is spoken of in the prophecies under the name of pomegranates, which were represent
places, and the Messiah's drink and living waters running thro
'nlry hich is the desert auters inwd!r p.1ace ready to fai with
V in the work of the tabernacle and temple. Cant vi. 7, 11. vii. 12. viii. 2. Figures that were made in the tabernacle and temple were called che-rubim, the same name by which angels are called in the Old Testament: wbich'is an evidence that they were made as types or representations of angels. The*cburch and people of the Messiah are in the prophecies of the Messiah compared to and called a pa m-tree, or palm-trees; Cant. vii. 7,8. Psal. xcii. 12. which is an argument that they were typified by the figures of palm-trees in the
tabernacle and temple. Something that should be in the Messiah's time is represented by what appertained to the manner of God's appearance in the holy of holies. Psal. xcvii- " Clouds and darkness are round about him." Compare 2 Sam. xxii. 12.
Some of the persons that we have an account of in the history of the Old Testament, are expressly spoken of as resemblin he Messiah. So Mows, A prophet will the Lord thygGtod raise up unto thee, li"Ie unto me." Deut. xviii. 15, 18. So Metchisddr, Psal. cx. 11 Thou art a priest fbr ever after the order of Melchizedek." And the account we have, Ise. vii. concerning Nicar-J64hub, the son of Isaiah the prophet, is -tent to expressly de-claring him to be a type of the%~-iah. And Zendhabel and Joshua are evidently spoken of as types of the Mes-siah. Haggai ii. 23. 11 In that day, saidi [be Lord of hosts, I will take thee, 0 Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of Shealtiel, and make thee as a signet?' Zech. iv. 7. " Who art thou, 0 great mountain ? Before Zerubbabel thou shalt become a plain ; and he shall bring forth the head-stone thereof with shoutings; crying, Grace, grace unto it." Ver. 10. "For who hath des~ised the day of small things? For they shall re*oice and shall see tlui plummet in the hand of Zerubba9l with those seven. They are the eyes of the Lord," &c. Zech. iii. "And he showed me Joshua the high priest---and unto him he qaid-I will clothe thee with a change of raiment. And I said, Let them set a fair mitre upon his head. Hear now, 0 Joshua, the high priest, thou and thy fellows that sit before thee, (for they are men wondered aQ for behold I I will bring forth in re=t the Branch." Zech. vi. 11, 12. 0 Then take .iiyes gold, and make crowns, and set them on the head of Joshua, the son of Josedech the high priest, and speak unto him, Behold, the man whose name is the Branch."
It is an evidence, that some of the more eminent per-sons that we have an account of in the history of the Old Testament, are types of the Messiah, that some of them and the Messiali are plainly spoken of under one. It is plain concerning David in the 89th Psalm, where the name of David is mentioned once and again, and yet the Psalm evidently looks beyond David to the Messiah. It is also plain concerning Solomon in the 72d Psalm, which the title declares to have respect to Solomdn, and yet the matter of the psalm most evidently shows that it fias re-spect to the Messiah ; many things in it being true of the Messiah, and peculiar to him, and not true of Solomon.
And here, by the wa ' v, I would observe, that to the many
evidences that have already been taken notice of, that
David and Solomon are types of the Messiah, this may
be added, that the Jews themselves looked on them as
Yt pes of the Messiah. (See Basnage's History of the ews, page 367.)
Many things occasionally appointed of God, if they
sigply nothing s~.iritual, must be wholly insignificant
actions, and so w I~ impertinent. Such'as the setting
, t 0
up a brazen serpent or man to look upon, in order to a being healed. God's a . . the princes of the con-
gregation. to dig a with their staves, to sulply the congregations with 1!ate~, and a public record s being made of it by divine inspiration, and its being celebrated in a song of the people that is also recorded by divine in-spiration. Num. xxi. 17, 18. Moses's holding up his hand by divine direction, that Joshua and Israel might =iI over Amalek: Elijah's stretching himself three
upon the widow of Zarephath's son, in order to raise him to life. I Kings xvii. 21. Elisha's ordering his staff to be laid on the face of the Shunamite's dead child, and afterwards his lying upon the child, and putting his mouth on his mouth, and his eyes upon his eyes, and his hands upon his hands, and streiching himself on the child, in order to raise it to life. And so many other like actions that God appointed, might be mentionid.
But to say something more particularly concerning the ceremonial law. There is abundant evidence even in the Old Testament, that the things that belong to that law are typical of the things of the Messiah.
If the things of the ceremonial law are not typical of moral and spiritual things, they are wholly insig6ificant, and so wholly impertinent and vain. For Ood does abun-
dantly declare, even in the Old Testament, that he has no delight in them on their own account, and that they are in his esteem worthless and vain in themselves, and therefore it will follow that they must be worthless and vain to all intents and purposes, unless they are otherwise by the rela-tion they bear to something that God delights in on its own account, i . e. unless they are some way significant of things moral and spiritual. If the things of the ceremonial law were pleasing to God, and were not pleasing on their own account, or by reason of any thing that God saw in them ; then it must be on account of something else that they represent, and because they some way stand in stead of them. For instance, when God went out throu0i the land of Egvpt to smite the first-born, and saw thiTblood of the pa~chal lamb on the door-postR of a house, it is re~resented as being something pleasing to God, for the sa e of which he would spare the inhabitants of that house. But the Old Testament reveals, that blood was not at all pleasing on its own account. For that declares that God hath no delight in the blood of beasts; and therefore the way in which it was something pleasing to God, must be its being something which represented or stood in stead of something that was truly in itself pleas-ing. So the sweet savour that was made in offering in-cense is spoken of as something sweet and pleasant to God; and a white clean garment as something pure, and so pleasing to God. But we know that these things were not pleasant or acceptable on their own account, and there-fore it must be only as related to something else that was so. But in what way is a sweet smell. related to any thing really sweet to God, except as it is a type, or has some signification of it? And which vva.v has the purity of a garment any relation to spiritual purity, but as it has a Pepresentation of it?
This leads me to observe, that there is an apparent and
designed resemblance between those things that were in-
stituted, that were in themselves worthless, and those
moral and spiritual things that in themselves were valu-
able in the sight of God. Thus it is apparent, that outward
cleanliness and purity resemble and shadow forth that
which is in the sight'of God real purit ' v ; and outward
sweetness resembles real sweetness to God. So the light
of the lamps in the sanctuary had a resemblance of spirit-
ual light ; and the preciousness of gold and pearls, that
were used in the sanctuary and priests' garments, had a
resemblance of some real preciousness in the sight of God ;
and the beauty and ornaments of the sanctuary and its
vessels and holy gaiments, &c bad a resemblance of real
beauty, and of those things that were ornaments in the
sight of God. So that seeming atonement for sin, that
was in the legal sacrifices, had a resemblance of that only
true atonement the prophecies speak of. The seeming
vicariousness there was in the sufferings of beasts for sin-
ners, had a resemblance of a true vicariousness and substi-
tution. And it is also manifest, that God chose those
things, or had respect to them in his choice and appoint-
ment of them, because they did resemble or shadow forth
those correspondent spiritual things, that have a real value
and excellenev in themselves in his sight. The very na-
ture of the thin-, makes it manifest. Titus it is, manifest
that God chose pure parments rather than filthy ones, be-
cause outward purity did more resemble real purity. Ile
chose a sweet smell to be offered as a pleasant savour
unto him, because sweet smell has more resemblance of
what is reall y sweet to him. It is manifest that lie chose
the suffering of beasts as an atonement for sin, rather than
the feeding and pampering of them, because this has more
of a resemblance of a true atonement, which the prophe-
cies speak of as being by the sufferings of a surety. It is
evident that God chose the blood or life of the creature to
be offered, to make atonement for the soul, rather than the
hair, because it has a greater resemblance of the life of a
surety, which is a true atonement for the soul, as the pro-
phecies of the Old Testament do represent. But if it be
evident, that God in the institution of the things of the
ceremonial law, had respect to the resemblance that was
in them of spiritual things and things of the Messiah, and
appointed those rather than things of a diverse nature, for
the sake of that resemblance, this is the same thing as to
say, that the former are appointed as (9pes of the tatter.
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
All the people of Israel, if they exercised consideration,
must suppose and understand that these things pertaining
to the ceremonial law were appointed and used as repre-
sentations and symbols of something spiritual, and not for
the sake of any innate goodness in them, or any Val tie God
had for them. As for instance, that God appointed white
garments rather than ' 1,ellow, green, or blaCK, not for any
excellency of the colour, but as a more proper representa-
tion of righteousness and spiritual purity ; and the making
a sweet odour with spices, not that God smelt that odour
and so was pacified towards men as though be were re-
compensed. by the great pleasure they thereby gave him;
but to represent something s
, 4iritual that was highly ac-
ceptable to him : and so tha od appointed them to offer
the flesh of beasts and bread, as the food or bread of God
as these things are called, and the drink-offering of wine,
not that God eat and drank those things, and was pleased
with the taste of them, and received refreshment and bene-
fit, as a hungry and thirsty man does by meat and drink ;
but that these things were mystical and symbolical repre-
sentations of things of a higher and mor'e divine nature.
They must know, that laying hands on the head of the
sacrifice, and what was called laying sins on the scape
goat, was no real laying sins on those beasts. And be-
sides, God did expressl ' y and abundantly teach his people
under the Old Testament the contrary of these things.
They must naturally therefore suppose, that they were
used as things significant of something of a nature' higher
than themselves. They must naturally suppose, that
the eating the passover with the staff in the hand, and
with bitter herbs, and putting the blood of the sacrifices
upon the tip of the right ear, the thumb of the right hand,
and the great toe of the right foot, were mystical, and
symbolical, and significant of something in itself of value
With respect to the legal sacrifices, the evidence that they were types of the Messiah is very strong; which will ap ear if we consider the following thi gs.
~t is evident there is some real and proper atonement
for sin, which is in God's account requisite, and which he
insists upon in order to the pardon of sin, and which he
accepts as a true atonement, and is willing to forgive sin
on account of it. Otherwise, God never would designedly
have taken a course by such an abundance of institutions.
to bring up his people of the nation of Israel in the notion
of the need of some atonement for sin, and some vicarious-
ness and substitution of suffering for the sinner, in order to
satisfy divine justice, and not onl ' y to bring up the Jews
in this nation, but his church and people from the begin-
ning of the world, insomuch that all nations received this
notion from the first progenitors and founders of the na-
tions and families of the earth.
It is also very manifest that the legal sacrifices of beasts and birds were no real atonement. This appears not only from the nature of the thing, but it is what God abundantly taught his people under the Old Testament, of whom he required these sacrifices. Psal. A. 6. 1. 5, to the end, li. 16. Isa. i. 11, &c. lxvi. 2, 3. Ilos. vi. 6. Jer. vii. 21-23, and especially Mic. vi. 6-8.
It is apparent by the prophecies of the Old Testament,
that the Messiah was to offer a true and real atonement
for the sins of men. That the Messiah should offer op
himself a sacrifice for sin, is very clearly implied in many
places there mentioned. But this doctrine is not onG
implied, but it is declared, that the Messiah should atone
for sin' or expiate it by sacrifice. Isa. Iiii. 10. " When
thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin." Dan. ix.
24. 11 Sevent * v weeks are determined upon thy people and
upon thy holy cit.v"-fo make reconciliation for iniquity,
or to expialte iniquity by sacrifice, or to make atonement
for iniquitv ; for the word in the original is the very same
that is used from time to time in the law about sacrifices
for making atonement. In what follows, it is declared
bow this atonement was to be made, viz. by anointing the
most holy and the coming of the MessiA, and by his
being cut off, but not for himself, and making the sacrifice
and oblation to cease in the last half of the seventieth
week. And it is evident that the atonement for Sin here
spoken of is a proper atonement, that makes real satisrac-
tion for sin, and truly pqys and finishes the debt, by the
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
other e11N ressions that are added, 11 To finish the transgres-
sion, an make an end of sin, and bring in everlasting
rig1teo - usness;" and making the sacrifice and oblation to
cease, 1. 1. by making sin to cease, making an end of sin
and finishing the transgression, that there shall be no fur-
ther occasion for sacrifice and oblation. And making
atonement for sin is here prophesied of as that which was
to be, but never yet was: it was a new thing, as the pro-
phecy must be understood. But it could be a new thing
in no other sense but that, viz. that a true and proper
atonement for sin should be offered. For atonement in
other senses beside this bad been abundantly offered from
the beginning of the world. '"'bat is translated, to finish
the transgression, might have been rendered, to consume
transgression. But that expiation for sin that consumes
transgression and makes an end of sins, and brings into a
state of perpetual righteousness, so as to make all further
sacrifices, or attempts, and means, and representations of
atonement to cease, and should abolish them as now need-
less, that is iindoubtedly a proper atonement for sin.
Again, it is not onli manifest by the Old Testament that the sacrifice of the Messiah is a true real atonement, but that it is the only true and real atonement for sin. For the Old Testameiit speaks of no other sorts of sacri-fices of ex lation for sin but those two, viz. the ancient legal sac~ fiTees of beasts, and the sacrifice of the Messiah. What the prophecies sometimes say of sacrifices that should be offered by God's people, alfer the Messiah's as-cension, must be understood fiVratively ; because it is expressly foretold, that the Messiah by his sacrifice should cause tl;e sacrifice and oblation to cease. And besides, as I observed before, the Messiah's making expiation for sin, is prophesied of as a new thing; and as it is foretold as a new thing, or the first thing of that nature, so it is also prophesied of as the last thing of that nature, as is implied in those expressions of his making an end of sin, finishing the transgression, and making the sacrifice and oblation to cease. And these two things put together, imply that this is the only truly expiatory sacrifice. See also Zech. iii * 8,9. An~d then, that this is the only sacrifice by which the sins of God's people are ' atoned, and that never any one is forgiven and acce ted on account of any oth~r atonement, is implied in ~~Ia. Iiii. 6. 11 All tee like sheep have gone astray: we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all."
Another thing that is very manifest, is, that the legal sacrifices had a manifold res'emblance and representation of that great, true, and roper sacrifice that the proEhe-cies foretold that the Zssiab should offer. Thus t ose beasts that were offered were without blemish, as the pro-phecies represent the Messiah to be, Isa. Iiii. and other Vaces. These sacrifices were not of unclean but clean
easts, therein representing that spiritual purity that the prophecies speak of in the Messiah. A very great part of those sacrifices were of lambs, as the paschal lamb, Exod. xxix. 39. and very many other of th~ir sacrifices, which had a resemblance' of what the prophecies represent of the feebleness, innocence~ meekness, and gentleness of the Messiah. Most of the sacrifices were males, as the Mes-siah is represented as of the male sex. They were offered by a priest in white robes, representing the purity and holiness of the Messiah ; who, when spoken of, Dan. ix. as the great priest that should offer that atonement that should make an end of sin, is called the 11 Most Holy." " Seventy weeks are determined to make reconciliation'for iniquity and to anoint the Most Holy." The priests were anointed : herein there was a resemblance between them and the great Messiah, or anointed. The sacrifices suffered as the Messiah, the great sacrifice, is represented to suffer. The sacrifices suffered death, and a violent death, as the Messiah suffered death-the sacrifices were burnt by fire from heaven; as the prophecies represent the Messiah as suffering fi-om the immediate hand of God. In most of the sacrifices, their inward parts were to be burnt on the altar, that are abundantly made use of in the Old Testament to represent the soul ; which is agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the Messiah's making hissoul an offering for sin. The fat of the inwards of the sacrifices was melted, and consumed, and burnt up in the
fire; which is agreeable to Psal. xxii. 14, 15. "1 am poured out like water-my heart is like wax -1 it is melted in the midst of my b;wels; my strength is dried up like a potsherd;" ana Psal - cii. 4. "Aly heart is smitten and withered like grass;" and Isa. hii. 12. 11 He hath poured out my soul unto death." There was the resemblance of the substitution of the sacrificed beast in suffering for the sinner, as the prophecies represent con-cerning the Messiah. There was an appearance of layi
the iniquities of those for whom the sacrifices were offe2, on the animal sacrificed, especially on some of the sacri-fices on the head of which the hands of those for whom they were offered were laid, that they might lay their sins upon them. This is agreeable to Is'a. Iiii. 6 . 11 The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all." Ile scape-Zoat is represented as hewing the'sins of those for whom lie VMS offered into the wilderness; which is agreeable to Isa. Iiii. 4. 11 Surely he bath borne our griefs, he hath carried our sorrows." Ile Messiah is expressly s oken of as being like a lamb, in his being slain, and ot?16-ed as a sacrifice for sin, Isa. Iiii. The high 'est made intercession for the F~ople with the blood of ge sacrifices, agreeably to Isa. in. 12.
Beside all that has been already observed, this further is
manifest, viz. that they are by God called an atonement,
and are said to be an atonement, times without number.
(See the Concordance under the word Atonement.) See-
ing therefore, that the legal sacrifices are declared expressly
and abundantly to be no real atonement, but have evi-
dently a great iesemblance of the true atonement, and are
plainly representations of it, and are abundantly spoken of
by hiin that instituted them, as being an atonement, and
as instituted by him that they might be an atonement; it
is very apparent, that they were appointed figures and re-
presentations of the true atonement. For there are but
these two ways of any thing's being consistently with
truth said to be such a'thing,'by the name of which it is
called, viz. either its being that thing truly and properly,
or figuratively and by representation. Eiiher it must be
that thing that it is said to be in reality, or by representa-
tion of the reality, or not at all. We have often in the law
of Moses this expression used with regard to the sacrifices,
The priest shall make an atonement for him. Now one of
these two meanings must be put upon the words, either
that he shall make a real proper atonement, or that he shall
make an atonement figuratively or significantly. It is
either a true atonement or a s~eming atonement : other-
wise it could not be an atonement in any sense, nor would
it be so called b - v God. If there be such a thing as a real
atonement for sin, and the legal sacrifices be not a real
atonement for sin., yet are appointed and accepted as an
atonement, then they are appointed and accepted instead
of an atonement, for that is the same thing. So that it is
evident, that God appointed the legal sacrifices to stand
in stead of, or to represent, the real atonement. If a man
be appointed to stand for another that is absent, and be
accepted for an absent friend, then he is his representative.
When the prophet called the arrow that the king of Israel
shot out of his window, the arrow of the Lord's deliverance,
nothing else could be meant, but that it was a sign of the
arrow of the Lord's deliverance. So when the man that
interpreted his fellow's dream, said of the barley cake,
h , is the sword of Gideon, the son of Joasb he could
mean nothing else, but that this slni*d the sword of Gi-
deon. So when Josepl ' t e' seven lean kine are
seven Y= of famine." And so in innumerable other in-
stances might be mentioned. It is evident from what
has been already observed, that here are certain resem-
blances and shadows of sacrifices, and substitutions in
suffering for sinners, and atonements for sin : and it is
manifest that it was out of regard to this resemblance there
was in the shadow of the atonement, that the shadow was
ed. God himself has decided it by calling the
by the name of the substance, and by decladng
that he appointed the shadow, that it might be (or the sub-
stance, which he has done in declaring ~hat be appointed
it, that it might be for an atonement, t. e. instead of the
real atonement, which is the substance.
These shadows of atonement are not merely called by the name of an atonement, but they are spoken of from
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
time to time as being an atonement, and are said to be appointed, that thfy might be an atonement. Now what other way there is of being an atonement, boot either being so really, or being so in figure, and significance, I know not.
The incense appointed in the law had a sweet smell, and was acceptable to the senses, and so had a shadow of that which was acceptable to " and a sweet savour to him. And seeing that it is expressly declared by God in the law, that he appoints this incense for a sweet savour to him this demonstrates that God in the appointment has iect to that resemblance, that it is appointed to be
a an ing representation of a true sweet savour to him. Sweet smell is appointed, because it resembles what is truly acceptable to God. When external whiteness and purity, that is a shadow of true purity in the sight of God, is called by the name of true purit~ ; and is declared to be appointed that it might be for purity in the sight of God; this demonstrates that it is a nted to be a stand-in representation of true purity. Toilikewise, when the r
, lows of sufferings for sinners, and atonements for sin,
are called by the name of real sufferings for sinners, and
atonements for sin, and are said from time to time to be
atonements for sin, and to be appointed that they might be
for atonements for sin ; it demonstrates clearly, that these
shadows of atonement are appointed out of respect to the
resemblance they have to the real atonement, and that they
might be instead of it, and standing representations of it';
or, which is the same thing, that they might be tv es of it.
God appointed the suffering of the creature, raitEer than
the feeding or fatting of it, for the making atonement, be-
cause the suffering of the creature has a greater resem-
blance of that suffering that makes a real atonement for
sin. God in thus calling these shadows from time to
time by the name of the things resembled, and speaking
of them from time to time as being the things resembled,
does therein plainly put them in their stead, and does make
use of them as representations of them : as if any should
on design call one by another's name, that was not his
own name, and ordinaril ' v speak of him and treat him as
being that other, this would be the same thing as to sub-
stitute him for the other, and to make use of him as the
other's representative. -
It is an argument that the sacrifices were types of the Mes~iah, that when Manoah offered sacrifice by God's appointment, be that is called the "angel of the Lord," and who was the Lord, ascended in the flame of the sacrifice, Judg. xiii. 20. And so did, as it were, offer LIP himself in the flame of the sacrifice, intimating that he was the great sacrifice, that was the antitype of those sacrifices of beasts. The beasts that were'sacrificed to God, ascended up in the flame before God for a sweet savour. So the matter is represented in the Old Testament. But here we see, that when the sacrifice was ascending in the flame, the angel of the Lord ascends in the same, to show that that was the end of the sacrificing fire, viz. to cause him to ascend as a sweet savour unto God.
Again there is clear proof, that the legal sacrifices were tv es of the great sacrifice of The Messiah in Dan. ix. 24. 1i Lventy weeks are determined upon thy pe leandupon thy holy city, to finish the transgression' an7to make an er~d of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seat ~p the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy;" taken together with ver. 27. "And he shall confirm* the covenant with many for one week, and in the midst of the week shall he cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease." What is translated in ver. 24. "And to make an end of sins," might have been translated, "He shall seat tip the sin-off, rings." The word translated sins in the original is Chattaoth, the very same word that is made use of in the law of Moses, to signify sin-ffferings. So that the word might as well be translated kin4erings here as there. And it is the more likely, that sin-offerings should be meant here, because the word is in the plural number; whereas if what was intended was the same with iniquity in the clause preceding, and transgression in the clause following, thus varying the expression for eloquence sake, it would be moire likely this word would have been in the singular number as those are. And besides, it is the more
likely that the word signifies sin-offerings, because it is
evident that this text is a prophecy of the sacrifice that
the Messiah should offer for sin. In the next words it is
said, 11 He shall make reconciliation for iniquity." The
word rendered reconciliation (as has been already observed)
signifies expiation by sacrifice ; it being the same that is
so often rendered atonement in the law of Moses, when
speaking of sacrifices ' tbr sin. But what argues yet more
strong]. * y that this should have been translated, he shall
make an end, or seal up, sin-offerings, is, that in the 24th
verse there seems to be a reference to what had been said
before in this verse, when it is said, In the midst of the
week, or in the half of the week, be shall cause the sacri-
fice and oblation to cease. In the 24th verse it had beet
said, that the sacrifices or sin-offerings should be made ax
end of or sealed up in seventy weeks; and the 25th, 26th
and 27th verses are evidently exegetical of that 24th, to
explain how the anointed Holy One or Messiah should
make atonement for iniquity, and seal up the sin-offering
and sacrifices in seventy weeks, viz. from the command-
ment to build Jerusalem there should be seven weeks and
threescore and two weeks, that is, 69 weeks, and then in
the remaining week he should establish the covenant with
many, and in the half of the week be should make the
sacrifice and oblation to cease, or make an end of the sin-
offerings, as was said before. Now let us mind the ex-
pression ; the word translated make an end, in the original
is he shall seal up. "He shall seal up the sin-offerings."
It is the very same word that is used in the following
clause concer~ing vision and ophecy. 11 Ile shall ,eal UP
the vision and 'prophecy." ge same word being thus
used twice in like manner, in different clauses of the same
sentence, once concerning the vision and protcy, and
the other time concerning the sin-offering, t ere * is all
reason to understand it in both places in the same sense.
But the plain meaning of that clause, to seal up the vision
and Irophecy, is this ; then shall be accomplished the
gran event so often exhibited by the prophecies of the
pNpbets, and so often represented and signified by the
visions which the ' v saw, and so the vision and prophecy
shall be finished and brought to their grand accomplish-
ment,, that which they ultimately aimed at. Then shall
be fulfilled the sum of what was signified in the vision
and prophecy. (Ezek. xxviii. 12. I"nou sealest up the
sum full of ~yisdom and perfect in beauty.") So when in
the same sentence it is said, to seal tip ibe sin-offering ,
's and make atonement for iniquity, we must in a like sen;e understand it thus, to offer thai grand sacrifice or atone-ment for iniquity, that is so much exhibited a d re e sented by the sin-offerings. So that the sm-offerin s a I be made tocease, their design being obtained and finished, that grand event, that great and true atonement for sin, which was aimed at in them, and which they all signified and represented, being now accomplished.
Again it is evident, that the priests of old, in their
office of offering sacrifices, were types of the Messiah in
offering his sacrifice : otherwise there is no truth in that
prophecy that God declares in so solemn a manner, and
confirms with an oath, in Jer. xxxiii. 18. "Neither shall
the priests, the Levites, want a man before me to offer
burnt-offerings, and to kindle meat-offerings, and to do
sacrifice continuall - Y." See how solemnly this is confirmed
and sworn to, in the following words. Unless this be
fulfilled in the true sacrifice or atonement, which the
Messiah offers. and in the accomplishment of that pro-
phec ' v of the Messiah, Psal. ex. "The Lord hath sworn
and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever, after the
order of Melchizedek ; " it is not fulfilled at all ; and is
neither agreeable to fact nor to other prophecies. Unless
this prophecy be fulfilled thus, it is not agreeable to fact.
For the priests and Levites have had no man literally to
offer sacrifices literally, for a much longer time than ever
the , v had a man to oKr sacrifices. And it is not agreeable
to other prophecies, particularly that fore-mentioned, Dan.
ix. 24, 27. That speaks of the Messiah's causing the
sacrifice and oblation to cease; and sealing them UP, which
is directly contrary to this profhecy of Jeremiah xxxiii. if
this latter be understood litera Iv. For this very prophecy
of Jeremiah is evidently a prophecy of the Messiah. See
ver. 15. "1 will cause the branch of righteousness to grow
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
up to David." So that upon this supposition Jeremiah foretells the Messiah's abundantly confirming the priests and Levites in their business of offering sacrifice and ob-lation, so as to perpetuate it for ever; and Daniel fore-tells his finishing the business wholly, sealing it up and making it to cease. And it is elsewhiir~ foretold that there should be no temple made with hands, no ark, no sacri-fices of beasts, in the Messiah's times.
From what has been now observed of the ropheci~s foretelling that the Messiah should abolish the legal sacn-fices, it is manifest that whenever the prophecies of the Messiah's times do speak of sacrifices then to be offered, they are to be understood in 11 i. e. of spiritual thin s typified by the sacrifix"i.- L. xix. 21. Ix. 7. Ezet. xi. 40, 4 1. Mal. i. 11.
The blood of the legal sacrifices is called the blood of the covenant by Moses, Exod. xxiv. 8. 41 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words." But God calls the blood of the Messiah the blood of the covenant that he had made with this people, or the blood of their covenant. Zech. ix. 11. 11 As for thee also, by the blood of thy cove-nant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein there is no water." It is evident that the blood of the Messiah is that blood by which, the church will be re-deemed, when the Messiah comes, which is the time here
e legal sacrifices, and the blood of the Messi h, are called the blood of the church's covenant, it is manifest that one is represented by the other. The same sacrifices must be intended in that prophecy of the Mes-siah's times, Ps. 1. 5. 11 Gather my saints iogether, those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice." Thus plain it is that the legal sacrifices were types of the Mes-siah, the great sacrifice and true atonement for sin, and were appointed as such. And by some things that have been already observed, it is also manifest that their legal
rfications were types of that spiritual purity that should 'br the Messiah, and the sweet incense a ty e of that whicZ is spiritual and truly sweet to God. AriTconcem-ing the incense, I further observe, that spiritual things are exf:essl.v compared to it in the Old Testament, Ps. cxli. 2. 19 t my prayer be set fbrth before thee as incense, and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice." And the Messiah is expressly compared to a cloud of incense; Cant. iii. 6. White and beautiful garments were appoint-ed the priests by the law of Moses. These garments on the priests are eipressly spoken of as representing some-thing in the Messiah, imd particularly are there spoken of as representing righteousness. Again, the righteousness of the Messiah is compared to beautiful garments, Isa. Ixi. lo. - He bath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a biidegroom decketh himself with his ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." Job xxix. 14. " I put on righteousness, and it clothed me." God is represented as clothed with a garment white as snow. Dan. vii. 7. And the Messiah appears to Daniel clothed in linen. Dan. x. 5, 6. and xii. 7. Spiritual purity is re-presented by the colour white. Isa. 1. 18. " Though thy sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow." Dan. xii. 10. 11 Many shall be purified and made white." The high priest had broidered garments: such are spoken of a's representing righteousness. Ezek. xvi. 9, 10. 11 Then I washed thee with water; I thoroughly washed awav thy blwd from thee; and I anointed thee with oil. I clotbea thft also with broidered work--and I girded thee about with fine linen."
It is manifest that the le I uncleannesses were types of spoken of. See v dau liter of Zion;
It , thy King co viz. the blood of th a
sin, they are said to be an =mination to the I.ord.' Yea, they ar~ called sin in the law of the sin-offering. Lev. vi. 6-8. and xiv. 13, 14, 19, 22, 24, 25, 53. xv. 30. Moral impurities seem to be represented by legal impurities, Hag. ii. 11-14. One thing that was ir legal pollution, was blood. This is made use of by the fropbets to tepresent sin. Ezek. xvi. 6. 11 When f saw thee polluted in thy blood." So 9, 22. Isa. i. 18. 11 Tbough your sins be as scarlet--and red like crimson." Chnp. iv. 4.11 When the
Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of buml
blood. Mo tion is compared to this.
Isa. Ixiv. 6. sses are as filthy rags," or
menstruous have been rendered. Ile
leprosy was uncleanness. Sin seems to
be c 6. 11 From the sole of the
foot to the head, there is no soundness in it, but
wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores."
Ile legal purifications by washing the hands in the laver, and other of the body in water, is what a spiritual cleansing I= sin is compared to. Ps. xxvi. 6. 11 1 will wash my hands in innocency, and so will I compass thine altar;" 'alluding to the pri~sts washing their hands at the laver before they compassed God's altar. Zech. xiii. 1.
In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house
of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, 1br sin and
for uncleanness." Ps. li. 2. 11 Wash me from my iniquity;
cleanse me from my sin." Isa. i. 16. 11 Wash ve, make
you clean; put away the evil of your doings."' Jer. iv.
14. 11 Wash thy heart from wickedness." Prov. xxx. 12.
11 There !s a generation that are pure in their own e * yes,
and yet is not cleansed from their filthiness." Isa. iv' 4.
11 When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the
daughters of Zion." Ezek. xvi. 4. 11 Ne'ither wast thou
washed in water." Ver. 9. 11 Then washed I thee in
water." Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 11 Then will I s rinkle clean
water upon you, and ye shall be clean from a7l' your filthi-
That the anointing under the law typified something spiritual, is confirmed by this, that what i4 spiritual is called anointing. Ezek. xvi. 9. 11 1 anointed thee with oil." It is an argument that those officers that were anointed ' were types of the Messiah, that his naine is Messialt, or the anointed. The holy anointing oil represented the Spirit of God, because the Holy Spirit is represented by holy anointing oil. Zech. iv' 2-6, 12. and Isa. 1xi. I.',, awe Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord hath anointed me." By which last words it may also be con-firmed, that the ~nointing of the officers Of the Jewish church represented the spiritual anointing of the Messiah.
Something spiritual that shall be in the Messiah's times
is compared to the wine of the drink-offering. Zech. ix.
15. 11 The ' v shall drink and make a noise as through wine.
They shall be filled like bowls and as the corners of the
We have the testimony of the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament, that the golden candlestick'with its bowl on the top and its seven lamps, and oil for the lamps, is a repre-sentation of the church of the Messiah. Zech. iv. taken with the preceding chapter.
The sanctuary or temple was a type of heaven, as may be argued from this, that heaven is called in the Old Testa-ment his dwelling-place, his holy habitation, his sanctuarv, and his temple. I Kings viii. ~0. 11 Hear thou in heaven thy dwelling-place." So 39, 43, 49. 2 Chron. vi. 21, 30, 36.; and 2 Chron. xxx. 27.; and Ps. xxxiii. 13, 14. 11 The Lord Iooketh from heaven, he beholdeth all the sons of men ; from the place of his habitation he looketh on all the inhabitants of the earth." Isa. Ixiii. 15. 11 Look down from heaven, and behold from the habitation of tby holiness and thy glory." Jer. xxv. 30. 11 The Lord shall *roar from on 'high, and utter his voice from his holy habitation." Deut. xxvi. 15. 11 Look down from thy hol'y habitation." Ps. 1xviii. 4, 5. 41 Sing unto the Lord sing praises unto his name; extol him that rideth on the heavens bv his name Jah-A judge of the widows is God in his'holv habitation." Ps. c ii. 19. 11 For he hath looked down from'
the height of his sanctuary, from heaven did the Lord behold the earth." Ps. xf. 4. 11 Ile Lord is in his holy temple; the Lord's throne is in heaven."
That the great, costlv, or precious stories that were the foundation of the temple, spoken of 1 Kings v. 19.; and of Solomon's house, chap. vii. 10. represented the INIes-siah, is confirmed by Isa. xxviii. 16. Ps. cxviii. 22. Zecb. iii. 9. and iv. 7.
TYPES OF THE MESSIAH.
temple were typical, from die agreement there is between it~ and the visions under which God sometimes manifested himself. The merev-seat with the cherubims is called the chariot of the cheru@ms. 1 Chron. xxviii. 18.; agreeable to the vision that Ezekiel had of God ri'din% in a chariot t
drawn by cherubims. Ezekiel's visi t e chariot of
the cherabims was also agreeable with the frame of the
in which the lavers were set, and represented as
c=ot' e to the
d by lions, oxen, and cherubim; agreeabl
shapes of Ezekiel's living creatures. See 1 Kings vii.
But a very great and clear evidence, that the city of Jerusalem, the holy city and the temiple in all its parts snd measures, and its.vanous qpendages and utensils, with all its officers, services, sacrifices, and ceremonies, and so all things appertaining to the ceremonial law, and indeed many things appertaining to the civil state of the people as divided into twelve tribes, were typical of things appertain-ing to the Messiah and his church and kingdom, is that these things areevidentlY madenseof as such, in a very par-ticular manner in the vision of the prophet Ezekiel ; that we have an account of the nine last chapters of his ~rophecy. These there mentioned, which are the same whic were in Israel under the law of Moses, are mentioned as resem-blances, figures, or symbolical representations of spiritual things. So that God has in these chapters determined, that these things are figures, symbols, or tYpes representing the things of the Messiah's' kingdom, because here he plainly makes use of them as such.
It is no argument, that the things that have been treated
of were not designed as types of the Messiah, and things
pertaining to his Kingdom, that God, when he instituted
!hem , did not expressly declare them to be so. For there
is no more necessity of supposing that all types signifying
future events, when given should be expWined, than that
all visions and prophecies sigoif~ying future events should
t.ex'p,l.amed. The things that were exhibited in visions,
y a sort of types of future events ; as Abraham's
smoking furnace and burning lamp, which was not ex-
plained nor expressly declared to represent any thing
future. The twelve fountains and threescore and ten
palm-trees at Elim, were evidently types of the twelve
tribes, and threescore and ten elders ; but yet it is not ex-
pressly said so. The like might be observed of Jacob's
taking Esau by the beet at his birth, and God's making
Eve of Adam's* rib, and Moses's rod's swallowing up the
magicians' rods, and many other things.
CoroMary. Seeing it is thus abundantly evident by the
Old Testament itself, that the things of the Old Testament
were= of the Messiah, and' things appertaining to
him, great and most convincing argument may be
drawn that Jesus is the Messiah ; seeing there is so won-
derful a correspondence, and evident, manifold, and great
agreement between him and his gospel, and those types of
the Old Testament. And as it is so plain by the Old Tes-
tament, that the ancient state of things am6n-st the Jews
was all typical of the Messiah, and The JeWs themselves
acknowledge it: So it is a great argument, that Jesus and
his kingdom were the end and antitYpe of these things, be-
cause presently after he comes and sets up his kingdom,
God puts a total and final end to that typical state of the
Jews, and all things appertaining to it,'blots out all those
types at once, and wipes them clean away, and poured the
utmost contempt upon them, and covered them with the
most dreadful darkness, and utterly destro ' ved, as by one
great fatal and final blow, that whole tv
, pical world, and has now continued their abolition for so many ages, much longer than he did their existence, and has followed all that reject the antitype, and will cleave to the types, with so awful and continual a curse, and all this agreeably to the prophecies of what God would do, when the Messiah, this great antitype, was come.
That typical representations were looked upon by God as no triffing matters, but things of great IMPORTANCE, as is manifest in that it is spoken of in Scripture as a matter of such , tance, that Christ's body should not see corru p-tion Zopmorit was raised.
It was common for NAMES to be given by a spirit of pro-phecy. (See Owen on Ifeb. vii. 2. p. 112'.)
the Old Testament are intended as typ~s, seeing it is mani-fest in some instances, that so very minute circumstances were so ordered, such as the negative circumstances of the story of Melchizedek, there being no mention made of his father or mother, of his birth or death.
That all things, even to the least circumstance, pre-scribed by God about the tabernacle, and its services, were types of heavenly things, ap rs by the apostle's manner 4 arguing, (Ileb. viii. 5.) rrom those words of God to Moses, 41 See that thou make all things according to the pattern showed to thee in the mount." And if they were all es, they were all for our instruction; and if they
were oi our in
stand them, even those of them that are no where explain-
ed in Scripture.
Heb. ix. 3-5. The apostle there mentioning the ark,
mercy-seat, tables of the covenant, the golden censer, pot of
manna, Aaron's rod that budded, concludes thus, 11 Of
which I cannot now speak particulad ' y," i. e. I cannot
now explain particularly the desi.gn of those things, and
tell You particularly what evangelical and heavenly things
were represented ihereby ; which proves evidently, that
many things in the tabernacle were typical, and intended
to represent to C d' le evangelical things, which sig-
nification is not expla!ZTto us in Scripture.
The Jews of old seemed to look on the redem fio from Egypt as a type of the redemption which shou d be accomplished by the Messiah. (See Pool's Synopsis on Exod. xii. 14 )
It is an evidence that legal uncleanness was a type of sin, that it is in effect called sin. (See Pool's Synopsis on av. Xii. 8.)
That the temporal things of the Old Testament were types of the spiritual things of the New. (See Pool's S.v-nopsis on 2 Sam. ii. 10.)
An OWFCTION is raised from the abuse that will be made of this doctrine of types. Awuvr. I do not know that the types of Scripture are more abused by people that are enthusiastic and of teeming imagination, than the visionary representations of the book of Revelation ; and yet none make that an objection against all attempts to understand and inte ret that book. We have as good warrant Gout the VVoiW of God to sup ose the whole ceremonial law to be given in order to a Zg1urative repre-senting and signifying spiritual and evangelical things to mankind, as we have to suppose that prophetical repre-sentations are to represent an signify the events designed by them, and therefore have as good reason to endeavour to interpret them.
The prin~iples of human nature render TYPES a fit
method of instruction. It tends to enlighten and illus-
trate, and to convey instruction with impression, convic-
tion, and pleasure; and to help the memor ' v. These
things are confirmed by man's natural delight in the imi-
tative arts, in painting, poetry, fables, metaphorical lan-
guage and dramatic performances. This disposition ap-
pears early in children.
This mav be observed concerning types in general, that
not onl ' v the things of the Old Testament are qVical ; for
this is but one part of the typical world. The system
of created beings may be divided into two parts, the
t%pical world, and the antitypical world. The inferior
a . nd carnal, i. e. the more external and transitory part of
the universe, that part of it which is inchoative, imperfect,
and subservient, is t ' ypical of the superior, more spiritual,
perfect, and durable part of it, which is the end, and as
it were the substance and consummation, of the other.
Thus the material and natural world is typical of the
moral, spiritual, and intelligent world, or th~ city of God.
And many things in the world of mankind, as to their
external and worldly state, are typical of thin s pertaining
to the city and kingdom of God : as many ttings in the
state of the ancient Greeks, and Romans, &e. And those
things beloi ging to the city of God, which belon to its
more imperfect, carnal, inchoative, transient, an5 pre'-'
paratory state, are typical of those things which belong
,to its more spirituil, perfect, and durable state ; as
things belonging to the state of the church under the Old
Testament were typical of things belonging to the
church and kingdoin of God und~r the New Te-tament.
Ile external works of Christ were -typical of his spiritual a great oonfirmation that the history of the Old Testament works. Ile ordinances of the external worship of the in general is intended to be typical of spiritual things. christian church am typical of things belonging to its Ile apostle's manner of sg3aking seems to imply, that it
heavenly state. might well be expected of od, that his people should un-
The manner of the apostle's expressing himself in Gal. derstand such like things as representations of divine
iv 21, 22. will clearly prove that Abraham's two sons, and things, and receive particular instruction exhibited in them,
their mothers, and mount Sinai, and mount Sion, were in- even before they are particularly explained to them by God
tended to be types of those things he mentions; which is bv a new revelation.